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Lk> ana 


Old Southwest 

Katharine B. 








NORTHWEST. E^NsdaUj of WaibiiiKtoii na 
Ofii«L JTtfi SO fulUft^9 iUmurmaoni. SmmU 

MONTANA: «<The Land of Sfaiiuag Moontvos.** 
UUmrmU, ImdiMti, Sfusrg 8^n. 75 uma mm. 

A. C. McCLURG U CO^ Pobfidiai. 







Aimmii aw "MTtBs ahd Lic.kih af Auika," '^ths amo Licehi 







( NOV 21 1913 



A. C. McCLURO ft CO. 


Poblithed April, 1911 

V. jr. i|ia fblatlaf 9a«|iiB9 



IN the beginning of the New-making, the ancient 
fathers lived successively in four caves in the Four- 
fold-con tain ing-earth. The first was of sooty 
blackness, black as a chimney at night time; the sec- 
ond, dark as the night in the stormy season; the third, 
like a valley in starlight; the fourth, with a light like 
the dawning. Then they came up in the night-shine 
into the World of Knowing and Seeing. 

So runs the Zuni myth, and it typifies well the men- 
tal development, insight, and beauty of speech of the 
Indian tribes along the Pacific Coast, from those of 
Alaska in the far-away Northland, with half of life 
spent in actual darkness and more than half in the 
struggle for existence against the cold and the storms 
loosed by fatal curiosity from the bear's bag of bit- 
ter, icy winds, to the exquisite imagery of the Zunis 
and other desert tribes, on their sunny plains in the 

It was in the night-shine of this southern land, with 
its clear, dry air and brilliant stars, that the Indians, 


looking up at the heavens above them, told the story 
of the bag of stars — of Utset, the First Mother, who 
gave to the scarab beetle, when the floods came, the 
bag of Star People, sending him first into the world 
above. It was a long climb to the world above and 
the tired little fellow, once safe, sat down by die sack. 
After a while he cut a tiny hole in the bag, just to 
see what was in it, but the Star People flew out and 
filled the heavens everywhere. Yet he saved a few 
stars by grasping die neck of the sack, and sat there, 
frightened and sad, when Utset, the First Mother, 
asked what he had done widi the beautiful Star People. 
The Sky-father himself, in those early years of 
the New-making, spread out his hand widi the palm 
downward, and into all the wrinkles of his hand set 
the semblance of shining yellow cora-grains, gleaming 
like sparks of fire in the dark of the early World-dawn. 
" See," said Sky-father to Earth-mother, " our chil- 
dren shall be guided by these when the Sun-father is 
not near and thy mountain terraces are as darkness it- 
self. Then shall our children be guided by light'' So 
Sky-fadier created the stars. Then he said, "And 
even as these grains gleam upward from the water, 
so shall seed grain like them spring up from the earth 
when touched by water, to nourish our children." And 
he created the golden Seed-stuflF of the com. 



It is around the beautiful Corn Maidens that per- 
haps the most delicate of all imagery clings, Maid- 
ens offended when the dancers sought their presence 
all too freely, no longer holding them so precious as 
in the olden time, so that, in white garments, they be- 
came invisible in the thickening white mists. Then 
' sadly and noiselessly they stole in amongst the people 
and laid their corn wands down amongst the trays, and 
laid their white broidered garments thereon, as moth- 
ers lay soft kilting over their babes. Even as the mists 
became they, and with the mists drifting, fled away, 
to the far south Summer-land. 

Then began the search for the Corn Maidens, found 
at last only by Paiyatuma, the god of dawn, from whose 
flute came wonderful music, as of liquid voices in 
caverns, or the echo of women's laughter in water vases, 
heard only by men of nights as they wandered up and 
down the river trail. 

When he paused to rest on his journey, playing on 
his painted flute, butterflies and birds sought him, 
and he sent them before to seek the Maidens, even 
before they could hear the music of his song-sound. 
And the Maidens filled their colored trays with seed- 
corn from their fields, and over all spread broidered 
, mantles, broidered with the bright colors and the 
I creature signs of the Summer-land, and thus following 


him, journeyed only at night and dawn, as the dead 
do, and the stars also. 

Back to the Seed People they came, but only to 
give to the ancients the precious seed, and this hav- 
ing been given, the darkness of night fell around them. 
As shadows in deep night, so these Maidens of the Seed 
of Corn, the beloved and beautiful, were seen no 
more of men. But Shutsuka walked behind the Maid- 
ens, whistling shrilly as they sped southward, even as 
the frost wind whistles when the corn is gathered away, 
among the lone canes and the dry leaves of a gleaned 

The myths of California, in general, are of the same 
type as those given in a preceding volume on the myths 
of the Pacific Northwest. Indeed many of the myths 
of Northern Californian tribes are so obviously the 
same as those of the Modocs and Klamath Indians that 
they have not been repeated. Coyote and Fox reign 
supreme, as they do along the entire coast, though the 
birds of the air take a greater part in the creation of 
things. These stories are quaint and whimsical, but 
they lack the beauty of the myths of the desert tribes. 
There is nothing in all Californian myths, so far as I 
have studied them, which in any way compares with 
the one of the Com Maidens, referred to above, or the 

Sia myths of the Cloud People. 





In the compilation of this volume, the same idea 
has governed as in the two preceding volumes — simply 
the preparation of a volume of the quainter, purer 
myths, suitable for general reading, authentic, and 
with illustrations of the country portrayed, but with 
no pretensions to being a purely scientific piece of 
work. Scientific people know well the government 
documents and reports of learned societies which con- 
tain myths of all kinds, good, bad, and indifferent. But 
(he volumes of this series are intended for popular use. 
Changes have been made only in abridgments of long 
conversations and of ceremonial details which detracted 
from the myth as a myth, even though of great ethno- 
logical importance. 

Especial credit is due in this volume to the work of 
(he ethnologists whose work has appeared in the pub- 
lications of the Smithsonian Institution, and the U. S. 
Geographical and Geological Surveys West of the 
Rocky Mountains: to Mrs. Mathilda Cox Stevenson 
for the Sia myths, and to the late James Stevenson for 
the Navajo myths and sand painting; to the late Frank 
Hamilton Cushing for the Zuni myths, to the late Frank 
Russell for the Pima myths, to the late Stephen Powers 
for the Californian myths, and also to James Mooney 
and Cosmos Mindeleff. The recent publications of the 


University of California on the myths of the tribes of 
that State have not been included. 

Thanks are also due to the Smithsonian Institution 
for the illustrations accredited to them, to the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington for illustrations from the 
Desert Botanical Laboratory at Tucson, Arizona, 
and to Mr. Ferdinard Ellerman of the Mount Wilson 
Observatory and to others. 

K. B. J. 
Department of History, 

University of Washington. 


The Beginning of Newness • . 
The Men of the Early Times 
Creation and Longevity • . • 

Old Mole's Creation • • . • 
The Creation of the World . . 

Spider's Creation 

The Gods and the Six Regions . 
How Old Man Above Created the 


The Search for the Middle and the 

Hardening of the World . . 
Origin of Light 

Zuni (New Mexico) . 
Zuni (New Mexico) . 
Achomawi (Pit River, 


Shastika (Cal) . . 
Pima (Arizona) . . 
Sia (New Mexico) . 

Pokoh, the Old Man 

• • 

Thunder and Lightning • • • 

Creation of Man 

The First Man and Woman . . 

Old Man Above and the Grizzlies 
The Creation of Man-kind and the 


The Birds and the Flood . . . 
Legend of the Flood 

The Great Flood 

Shastika (Cal.) . . 

Zuni (New Mexico) . 
Gallinomero (Russian 

River, Cal.) . . 
Pat Ute (near Kern 

River, Cal.) . . . 
Maidu (near Sacramento 

Valley, Cal.) . . 
Miwok (San Joaquin 

Valley, Cal.) . . 
Nishinam (near Bear 

River, Cal.) . . 
Shastika (Cal.) . . 

Pima (Arizona) . . 
Pima (Arizona) . . 
Ashochimi (Coast Indians 


Sia (New Mexico) . 












The Flood ana the Thtfc of Fire . 

Legend of the Flood ni Sacramento 


The Fable of the Anunals ... 

Coyoce and Sun 

The Course of die Sun 
The Foxes and the Sun 

The Theft of Fire . . 

The Theft of Fire 

The Earth-hardening after the 


The Origins of the Totems and of 


Traditions of Wanderings • . . 
The Migration of the Water 


Coyote and die Mesquite Beans . 
Origin of die Sierra Nevadas and 

Coast Range 

Yosemite Valley and its Indian 


Legend of Tu-tok-a-nu'-la (El 


Legend of Tis-se'-yak (South 

Dome and North Dome) . . 
Historic Tradition of the Upper 


California Big Trees .... 

The Children of Cloud . . . 

To/ocrtf (Del Norte Cm., 
Cml.) .... 

Mmdm (memr Smcrmmemio 
VdUy, Od.) . 

Kmrmk (memr KUommik 

Pm Uie (memr Kern 
River, CsL) . . 

Sia (New Mexico) 

Yurot (near Klmmuak 
River, Csl.) . . 

Karok (me^r Klamath 
River, Cat.) . . 

Sia (New Mexico) 

Sia (New Mexico) 

Zuni (New Mexico) 
Hopi (Arizona) 

fValpi (Arizona) • 
Pima (Arizona) . 
Yokuts (near Fresno, 
Cal) .... 

Yosemite Valley . 

Yosemite Valley . 

Yosemite Valley . 
Pat Ute (near Kern 

River, Cal.) . . 
Pima (Arizona) . 


















The Cloud Pci^Ie . . . 

Rain Song 

Raia Song 

Rain Song 

The Corn Maidens . . , 
The Search for the Corn 


Hasjelti and Hostjoghon 

The Song-hunter 

Sand Painting of the Song-hunter 

The Guiding Duck and the Lake 

of Death 
The Boy who Became a God 
Origin of Clear Lake . 

Sia (Nevt Mexico) 
Sia (New Mexico) 

I Hasjelti and B 

\ The Song-huntc 

I Sand Painting i 

1 The Guiding I 
I of Death 

I The Boy who B 

L Origin of Clear 

^^H'The Great 

I Oriein of the 

Sia (Nfw Mexico) . 
Zunt (New Mexico) 

Zuni (New Mexico) 
Navajo (New Mexico) 
Navajo (New Mexico) 

On gin of the Raven and the 


Coyote and the Hare .... 
Coyote and the Quails .... 
Coyote and the Fawns .... 
How the Bluebird Got its Color . 

Coyote's E>-es 

Coyote and the Tortillas . . , 

Coyote as a Hunter 

How the Rattlesnake Learned to 

Coyote and the Rattlesnake , . 
Origin of the Saguaro and Palo 

Verde Cacti 

The Thirsty Quails 

The Boy and the Beast .... 

Zuni (New Mexico) . 
Navajo (New Mexico) 
Patwin (Sacramento 

Valley. Cal.) 
Patwin (Sacramento 

Valley. Cal.) . 

Zuni (New Mexico) 
Sia (New Mexico) 
Pima (Arizona) . 
Sia (New Mexico) 
Pima (Arizona) . 
Pima (Arizona) 
Pima (Arizona) . 
Sia (New Mexico) 

Pima (Arizona) 
Sia (New Mexico) 

Pima (Arizona) . 
Pima (Arizona) 
Pima (Arizona) 




Why the Apaches arc Fierce 
Speech on the Warpath . . 
The Spirit Land .... 

Song of the Ghost Dance . 


Pima (Arizona) , . . 187 

Pima (Arizona) . . . 188 
Gallinomero (Russian 

River, CaL) .... 192 
Pat Ute (Kern River, 

Col.) 193 




i San<l Painting of " The Song Hunter " Franlisfiiece 

^Zuni Sand Altar in Kiva of the North 24 

'Interior of a Pueblo Zuni House 23 

- Desert Garden, Showing Cholla, Small Cereus, and Giant Cacti 32 

'Girl Carrying Water Olla 33 

'Yuma Indians 36 

' " When the white man came • • • " 38 

'" Great towns built on the heights " (Castle of Montezuma) . 39 

'Yucca Growing through Sand Dune in Tularosa Desert . . 44 

•Indian Writing 48 

'Sierra Nevada Mountains 52 

■Hutsof Papago (Pima) Indians, Showing Village Bakc-ovcn . 58 

'Grand Canon of the Colorado 62 

' The Sands of the Desert 63 

■■'••• so that the waters on the plains flower into Big 

Waters" (Golden Gate) 70 

J Fallen Leaf Lake 71 

'San Luis Rey Mission 74 

'SJa Ceremonial Vase 84 

- From the Bell-tower of San Xavier Mission, Tuscon, Arizona 90 

'Indians in the Grand Canon 91 

'Happy Isles. Yosemite 96 

-A-wai'-a (Mirror Lake) 97 

-Po'-ho-no (Bridal Veil Falls) 98 

-Cholok, "the Fall" 99 

■ " Then came the tiny Measuring Worm and began to creep up 

the rock" (El Capitan) . 100 

Cres 101 
ey. Vernal Falls and Nevada Falls from Glacier 



' " South Dome is the woman and North Dome is the husband " 103 

^ fVoh-woh-nau, the Sacred Trees of the Monos 106 

^Apache Medicine Shirt 107 

^ " The Herati are the floating white clouds • • • " . . no 
'' " The Heash are clouds like the plains • • • " .•.in 

4 Zuni Ancestral Rock Gods 116 

^ The Little Basket-maker 124 

' " On the mountains where the fogs meet " 132 

J Apache Ollas 133 

^ " • • • in the Northland of cold and white loneliness" 140 

Navajo Blanket Weaving 148 

Zuni Pueblo from the Southeast 154 

<^limbing up the Acoma Trail 155 

^Pifion Tree in the Grand Canon 158 

^San Xavier Mission, Tucson, Arizona 159 

''Mesquite and Small Cereus Cactus 164 

^ Vases with Figures of Butterflies, from Sit]ratki 165 

^Sia Masks 172 

^alo Verde Cacti 182 

^Pima Irrigation Dam 183 

-•In the Petrified Forest of Arizona 186 

J " * * * threw all the Apaches over the mountains " 

(Apache basket-maker) 187 

^^'Bad Indians go to an island in the Bitter Waters" . . . 192 

^** The giant Sierras, fringed at the base with dark pines " . . 193 











Zuni {New Mexico) 

BEFORE the beginning of the New-making, the 
All-father Father alone had being. Through 
ages there was nothing else except black 

In the beginning of the New-making, the All-father 
Father thought outward in space, and mists were 
created and up-lifted. Thus through his knowledge 
he made himself the Sun who was thus created and 
is the great Father. The dark spaces brightened with 
light The cloud mists thickened and became water. 

From his flesh, the Sun-father created the Seed-stuff 
of worlds, and he himself rested upon the waters. And 
these two, the Four-fold-containing Earth-mother and 
the All-covering Sky-father, the surpassing beings, with 
power of changing their forms even as smoke changes 
in the wind, were the father and mother of the soul- 



Then as man and woman spoke these two together. 
^^ Behold! " said Earth-mother, as a great terraced bowl 
appeared at hand, and within it water, ^^ This shall be 
the home of my tiny children. On the rim of each 
world-country in which they wander, terraced moun- 
tains shall stand, making in one region many moun- 
tains by which one country shall be known from 

Then she spat on the water and struck it and stirred 
it with her fingers. Foam gathered about the terraced 
rim, mounting higher and higher. Then with her 
warm breath she blew across the terraces. White flecks 
of foam broke away and floated over the water. But 
the cold breath of Sky-father shattered the foam and 
it fell downward in fine mist and spray. 

Then Earth-mother spoke: 

^^ Even so shall white clouds float up from the great 
waters at the borders of the world, and clustering about 
the mountain terraces of the horizon, shall be broken 
and hardened by thy cold. Then will they shed down- 
ward, in rain-spray, the water of life, even into the 
hollow places of my lap. For in my lap shall nestle 
our children, man-kind and creature-kind, for warmth 
in thy coldness." 

So even now the trees on high mountains near the 

clouds and Sky-father, crouch low toward Eartb- 


mother for warmth and protection. Warm is Earth- 
mother, cold our Sky-father. 

Then Sky-father said, " Even so. Yet I, too, will 
be helpful to our children." Then he spread his hand 
out with the palm downward and into all the wrinkles 
of his hand he set the semblance of shining yellow corn- 
grains; in the dark of the early world-dawn they 
gleamed like sparks of fire. 

See," he said, pointing to the seven grains between 
his thumb and four fingers, "our children shall be 

ided by these when the Sun-father is not near and 
thy terraces are as darkness itself. Then shall our chil- 
dren be guided by lights." So Sky-father created the 
stars. Then he said, " And even as these grains gleam 
up from the water, so shall seed grain like them spring 
up from the earth when touched by water, to nourish 
our children." And thus they created the seed-corn. 
And in many other ways they devised for their chil- 
dren, the soul-beings. 

But the first children, in a cave of the earth, were 
unfinished. The cave was of sooty blackness, black as 
a chimney at night time, and foul. Loud became their 
murmurings and lamentations, until many sought to es- 
cape, growing wiser and more man-like. 

But the earth was not then as we now see it. Then 
the Sun-father sent down two sons {sons also of the 


Foam-cap), the Beloved Twain, Twin Brothers of 
Light, yet Elder and Younger, the Right and the Left, 
like to question and answer in deciding and doing. To 
them the Sun-father imparted his own wisdom. He 
gave them the great cloud-bow, and for arrows the 
thunderbolts of the four quarters. For buckler, they 
had the fog-making shield, spun and woven of the float- 
ing clouds and spray. The shield supports its bearer, 
as clouds are supported by the wind, yet hides its bearer 
also. And he gave to them the fathership and control 
of men and of all creatures. Then the Beloved Twain, 
with their great cloud-bow lifted the Sky-father into 
the vault of the skies, that the earth might become 
warm and fitter for men and creatures. Then along 
the sun-seeking trail, they sped to the mountains west- 
ward. With magic knives they spread open the depths 
of the mountain and uncovered the cave in which 
dwelt the unfinished men and creatures. So they dwelt 
with men, learning to know them, and seeking to lead 
them out. 

Now there were growing things in the depths, like 
grasses and vines. So the Beloved Twain breathed on 
the stems, growing tall toward the light as grass is 
wont to do, making them stronger, and twisting them 
upward until they formed a great ladder by which 
men and creatures ascended to a second cave. 



Up the ladder into the second cave-world, men and 
the beings crowded, following closely the Two Little 
but Mighty Ones. Yet many fell back and were lost 
in the darkness. They peopled the under-world from 
which they escaped in after time, amid terrible earth 

In this second cave it was as dark as the night of 
a stormy season, but larger of space and higher. Here 
again men and the beings increased, and their com- 
plainings grew loud. So the Twain again increased 
the growth of the ladder, and again led men upward, 
not all at once, but in six bands, to become the fathers 
of the six kinds of men, the yellow, the tawny gray, 
the red, the white, the black, and the mingled. And 
this time also many were lost or left behind. 

Now the third great cave was larger and lighter, 
like a valley in starlight. And again they increased 
in number. And again the Two led them out into a 
fourth cave. Here it was light like dawning, and men 
began to perceive and to learn variously, according to 
their natures, wherefore the Twain taught them first 
to seek the Sun-father. 

Then as the last cave became filled and men learned 
to understand, the Two led them forth again into the 
great upper world, which is the World of Knowing 
and Seeing. 



Zuni {New Mexico) 

EIGHT years was but four days and four nights 
when the world was new. It was while such 
days and nights continued that men were led 
out, in the night-shine of the World of Seeing. For 
even when they saw the great star, they thought it the 
Sun-father himself, it so burned their eye-balls. 

Men and creatures were more alike then than now. 
Our fathers were black, like the caves they came from ; 
their skins were cold and scaly like those of mud 
creatures ; their eyes were goggled like an owl's ; their 
ears were like those of cave bats; their feet were 
webbed like those of walkers in wet and soft places; 
they had tails, long or short, as they were old or young. 
Men crouched when they walked, or crawled along 
the ground like lizards. They feared to walk straight, 
but crouched as before time they had in their cave 
worlds, that they might not stumble or fall in the un- 
certain light. 

When the morning star arose, they blinked exces- 
sively when they beheld its brightness and cried out 


n^ V 


^^g Zl'ni Samj Altar iv Kiva of the N(irtm J 



at now surely the Father was coming. But it was 
inly the elder of the Bright Ones, heralding with his 
ield of flame the approach of the Sun-father. And 
'hen, low down in the east, the Sun-father himself ap- 
leared, though shrouded in the mist of the world- 
waters, they were blinded and heated by his light and 
;lory. They fell down wallowing and covered their 
eyes with their hands and arms, yet ever as they looked 
toward the light, they struggled toward the Sun as 
moths and other night creatures seek the light of a 
camp fire. Thus they became used to the light. But 
.vhen they rose and walked straight, no longer bend- 
ig, and looked upon each other, they sought to clothe 
themselves with girdles and garments of bark and 
rushes. And when by walking only upon their hinder 
feet they were bruised by stone and sand, they plaited 

sandals of yucca 6b re. 



Achomawi (Pit River, Cal.) 

COYOTE began the creation of the earth, but 
Eagle completed it. Coyote scratched it up 
with his paws out of nothingness, but Eagle 
complained there were no mountains for him to perch 
on. So Coyote made hills, but they were not high 
enough. Therefore Eagle scratched up great ridges. 
When Eagle flew over them, his feathers dropped 
down, took root, and became trees. The pin feathers 
became bushes and plants. 

Coyote and Fox together created man. They quar- 
relled as to whether they should let men live always or 
not. Coyote said, " If they want to die, let them die." 
Fox said, " If they want to come back, let them come 
back." But Coyote's medicine was stronger, and nobody 
ever came back. 

Coyote also brought fire into the world, for the In- 
dians were freezing. He journeyed far to the west, 
to a place where there was fire, stole some of it, and 
brought it home in his ears. He kindled a fire in the 
mountains, and the Indians saw the smoke of it, and 

went up and got fire. 




Shastika {Cat.) 

LONG, long ago, before there was any earth, Old 
J Mole burrowed underneath Somewhere, and 
threw up the earth which forms the world. 
Then Great Man created the people. But the Indians 
were cold. 

Now in the east gleamed the white Fire Stone. 
Therefore Coyote journeyed eastward, and brought 
back the Fire Stone for the Indians. So people had 

In the beginning, Sun had nine brothers, all flaming 
hot like himself. But Coyote killed the nine broth- 
ers and so saved the world from burning up. But 
Moon also had nine brothers all made of ice, like him* 
self, and the Night People almost froze to death. 
Therefore Coyote went away out on the eastern edge 
of the world with his flint-stone knife. He heated 
stones to keep his hands warm, and as the Moons arose, 
he killed one after another with his flint-stone knife, 
until he had slain nine of them. Thus the people were 
saTed from freezing at night. 



When it rains, some Indian, sick in heaven, is weep- 
ing. Long, long ago, there was a good young Indian 
on earth. When he died the Indians wept so that a 
flood came upon the earth, and drowned all people ex- 
cept one couple. 




Pima {Arizona) 

IN the beginning there was nothing at all except 
darkness. All was darkness and emptiness. For a 
long, long while, the darkness gathered until it 
became a great mass. Over this the spirit of Earth 
Doctor drifted to and fro like a fluffy bit of cotton in 
the breeze. Then Earth Doctor decided to make for 
himself an abiding place. So he thought within him- 
self, " Come forth, some kind of plant," and there ap- 
peared the creosote bush. He placed this before him 
and set it upright. But it at once fell over. He set it 
upright again ; again it fell. So it fell until the fourth 
time it remained upright. Then Earth Doctor took 
from his breast a little dust and flattened it into a cake. 
When the dust cake was still, he danced upon it, sing- 

Iing a magic song. 
Next he created some black insects which made black 
gum on the creosote bush. Then he made a termite 
which worked with the small earth cake until it grew 
Very large. As he sang and danced upon it, the flat 
)lrorld stretched out on all sides until it was as large 
I 29 


as it is now. Then he made a round sky-cover to fit 
over it, round like the houses of the Pimas. But the 
earth shook and stretched, so that it was unsafe. So 
Earth Doctor made a gray spider which was to spin 
a web around the edges of the earth and sky, fastening 
them together. When this was done, the earth grew 
firm and solid. 

Earth Doctor made water, mountains, trees, grass, 
and weeds — made everything as we see it now. But 
all was still inky blackness. Then he made a dish, 
poured water into it, and it became ice. He threw this 
round block of ice far to the north, and it fell at the 
place where the earth and sky were woven together. At 
once the ice began to gleam and shine. We call it now 
the sun. It rose from the ground in the north up into 
the sky and then fell back. Earth Doctor took it and 
threw it to the west where the earth and sky were 
sewn together. It rose into the sky and again slid back 
to the earth. Then he threw it to the far south, but it 
slid back again to the flat earth. Then at last he threw 
it to the east. It rose higher and higher in the sky un- 
til it reached the highest point in the round blue cover 
and began to slide down on the other side. And so the 
sun does even yet. 

Then Earth Doctor poured more water into the dish 

and it became ice. He sang a magic song, and threw 



the round ball of ice to the north where the earth and 
sky are woven together. It gleamed and shone, but not 
so brightly as the sun. It became the moon, and it 
rose in the sky, but fell back again, just as the sun had 
done. So he threw the ball to the west, and then to 
the south, but it slid back each time to the earth. Then 
he threw it to the east, and it rose to the highest point 
in the sky-cover and began to slide down on the other 
side. And so it does even to-day, following the sun. 

But Earth Doctor saw that when the sun and moon 
were not in the sky, all was inky darkness. So he sang 
a magic song, and took some water into his mouth and 
blew it into the sky, in a spray, to make little stars. 
Then he took his magic crystal and broke it into pieces 
and threw them into the sky, to make the larger stars. 
Next he took his walking stick and placed ashes on the 
end of it. Then he drew it across the sky to form the 
iilky Way. So Earth Doctor made all the stars. 



Sia {New Mexico) 

IN the beginning, long, long ago, there was but one 
being in the lower world. This was the spider, 
Sussistinnako. At that time there were no other 
insects, no birds, animals, or any other living creature. 

The spider drew a line of meal from north to south 
and then crossed it with another line running east and 
west. On each side of the first line, north of the sec- 
ond, he placed two small parcels. They were precious 
but no one knows what was in them except Spider. 
Then he sat down near the parcels and began to sing. 
The music was low and sweet and the two parcels ac- 
companied him, by shaking like rattles. Then two 
women appeared, one from each parcel. 

In a short time people appeared and began walking 
around. Then animals, birds, and insects appeared, 
and the spider continued to sing until his creation was 

But there was no light, and as there were many peo- 
ple, they did not pass about much for fear of tread- 
ing upon each other. The two women first created 



were the mothers of all. One was named Utset and she 
was the mother of all Indians. The other was Now- 
utset, and she was the mother of all other nations. 
While it was still dark, the spider divided the people 
into clans, saying to some, " You are of the Corn clan, 
and you arc the first of all." To others he said, " You 
belong to the Coyote clan." So he divided them into 
their clans, the clans of the Bear, the Eagle, and other 

After Spider had nearly created the earth, Ha- 
arts, he thought it would be well to have rain to water 
it, so he created the Cloud People, the Lightning Peo- 
ple, the Thunder People, and the Rainbow People, to 
work for the people of Ha-arts, the earth. He divided 
this creation into six parts, and each had its home in 
a spring in the heart of a great mountain upon whose 
summit was a giant tree. One was in the spruce tree 
on the Mountain of the North; another in the pine 
tree on the Mountain of the West; another in the oak 
tree on the Mountain of the South; and another in the 
aspen tree on the Mountain of the East; the fifth was 
on the cedar tree on the Mountain of the Zenith; and 
the last in an oak on the Mountain of the Nadir. 

The spider divided the world into three parts: Ha- 
arts, the earth; Tinia, the middle plain; and Hu-wa-ka, 
K upper plain. Then the spider gave to these People 


of the Clouds and to the rainbow, Tinia, the middle 

Now it was still dark, but the people of Ha-arts 
made houses for themselves by digging in the rocks and 
the earth. They could not build houses as they do now, 
because they could not see. In a short time Utset and 
Now-utset talked much to each other, saying, 

" We will make light, that our people may see. We 
cannot tell the people now, but to-morrow will be a 
good day and the day after to-morrow will be a good 
day," meaning that their thoughts were good. So they 
spoke with one tongue. They said, " Now all is cov- 
ered with darkness, but after a while we will have 

Then these two mothers, being inspired by Sussistin- 
nako, the spider, made the sun from white shell, turkis, 
red stone, and abalone shell. After making the sun, 
they carried him to the east and camped there, since 
there were no houses. The next morning they climbed 
to the top of a high mountain and dropped the sun 
down behind it After a time he began to ascend. 
When the people saw the light they were happy. 

When the sun was far off, his face was blue; as he 
came nearer, the face grew brighter. Yet they did not 
see the sun himself, but only a large mask which cov- 
ered his whole body. 



The people saw that the world was large and the 
country beautiful. When the two mothers returned to 
the village, they said to the people, " Wc are the 
mothers of all." 

The sun lighted the world during the day, but there 
was no light at night So the two mothers created the 
moon from a slightly black stone, many kinds of yellow 
stone, turkis, and a red stone, that the world might be 
lighted at night But the moon travelled slowly and did 
not alwajrs give light Thea the two mothen created the 
Star People and made their eyes of sparkling white 
crystal that they might twinkle and brighten the world 
at night \Vhen the Star People lived in the lower 
world they were gathered into beautiful groups; they 
were not scattered about as they are in the upper world. 



IN ancient times, Po-shai-an-ki-a, the father of the 
sacred bands, or tribes, lived with his followers in 
the City of Mists, the Middle Place, guarded by 
six warriors, the prey gods. Toward the North, he 
was guarded by Long Tail, the mountain lion; West 
by Clumsy Foot, the bear; South by Black-Mark Face, 
the badger; East by Hang Tail, the wolf; above by 
White Cap, the eagle ; below by Mole. 

So when he was about to go forth into the world, he 
divided the earth into six regions : North, the Direc- 
tion of the Swept or Barren Plains; West, the Direc- 
tion of the Home of the Waters ; South, the Place of 
the Beautiful Red; East, the Direction of the Home 
of Day; upper regions, the Direction of the Home of 
the High; lower regions, the Direction of the Home 
of the Low. 






Shastika {Cal.) 

ONG, long ago, when the world was so new that 
even the stars were dark, it was very, very flat. 
Chareya, Old Man Above, could not sec 
through the dark to the new, flat earth. Neither could 
he step down to it because it was so far below him. With 
a large stone he bored a hole in the sky. Then through 
the hole he pushed down masses of ice and snow, until 
a great pyramid rose from the plain. Old Man Above 
climbed down through the hole he had made in the 
sky, stepping from cloud to cloud, until he could put 
his foot on top the mass of ice and snow. Then with 
one long step he reached the earth. 

The sun shone through the hole in the iky and be* 
gao to melt the ice and snow. It made hole* in the ice 
and snow. When it was soft, Chareya bored with hii 
linger into the earth, here and there, and planted the firtt 
trees. Streams from the melting mow watered the 
new trees and made them grow. Then he gathered the 
leaves which fell from the trea and blew upon them. 


They became birds. He took a stick and broke it into 
pieces. Out of the small end he made fishes and placed 
them in the mountain streams. Of the middle of the 
stick, he made all the animals except the grizzly bear. 
From the big end of the stick came the grizzly bear, 
who was made master of all. Grizzly was large and 
strong and cunning. When the earth was new he 
walked upon two feet and carried a large club. So 
strong was Grizzly that Old Man Above feared the 
creature he had made. Therefore, so that he might be 
safe, Chareya hollowed out the pyramid of ice and 
snow as a tepee. There he lived for thousands of snows. 
The Indians knew he lived there because they could 
see the smoke curling from the smoke hole of his tepee. 
When the pale-face came, Old Man Above went away. 
There is no longer any smoke from the smoke hole. 
White men call the tepee Mount Shasta. 




Zuni {New Mexico) 

S it was with the first men and creatures, so it 

was with the world. It was young and unripe. 

Earthquakes shook the world and rent it. 

Demons and monsters of the under-world fled forth. 

Creatures became fierce, beasts of prey, and others 

turned timid, becoming their quarry. Wretchedness 

and hunger abounded and black magic. Fear was 

prerywhere among them, so the people, in dread of 

teir precious possessions, became wanderers, living 

1 the seeds of grass, eaters of dead and slain things. 

Kct, guided by the Beloved Twain, they sought in the 

ght and under the pathway of the Sun, the Middle of 

! world, over which alone they could find the earth 


I When the tremblings grew still for a time, the pco- 
paused at the First of Sitting Places. Yet they 
vre still poor and defenceless and unskilled, and the 

fr *The earth was flat and round, like a plate. 


world still moist and unstable. Demons and monsters 
fled from the earth in times of shaking, and threatened 

Then the Two took counsel of each other. The 
Elder said the earth must be made more stable for 
men and the valleys where their children rested. If 
they sent down their fire bolts of thunder, aimed to 
all the four regions, the earth would heave up and 
down, fire would belch over the world and bum it, 
floods of hot water would sweep over it, smoke would 
blacken the daylight, but the earth would at last be 
safer for men. 

So the Beloved Twain let fly the thunderbolts. 

The mountains shook and trembled, the plains 
cracked and crackled under the floods and fires, and 
the hollow places, the only refuge of men and creat- 
ures, grew black and awful. At last thick rain fell, put- 
ting out the fires. Then water flooded the world, cut- 
ting deep trails through the mountains, and burying 
or uncovering the bodies of things and beings. Where 
they huddled together and were blasted thus, their 
blood gushed forth and flowed deeply, here in rivers, 
there in floods, for gigantic were they. But the blood 
was charred and blistered and blackened by the fires 
into the black rocks of the lower mesas.^ There were 

^ Lava. 




vast plains of dust, ashes, and cinders, reddened like the 
mud of the hearth place. Yet many places behind and 
between the mountain terraces were unharmed by the 
fires, and even then green grew the trees and grasses and 
even flowers bloomed. Then the earth became more 
Stable, and drier, and its tone places less fearsome since 
monsters of prey were changed to rock. 

But ever and again the earth trembled and the peo- 
ple were troubled. 

" Let us again seek the Middle," they said. So they 
travelled far eastward to their second stopping place, 
the Place of Bare Mountains. 

Again the world rumbled, and they travelled into a 
country to a place called Where-tree-boles-stand-in- 
the-midst-of -waters. There they remained long, say- 
ing, "This is the Middle." They built homes there. 
At times they met people who had gone before, and 
tiius they learned war. And many strange things hap- 
pened there, as told in speeches of the ancient talk. 

Then when the earth groaned again, the Twain 
bade them go forth, and they murmured. Many re- 
fused and perished miserably in their own homes, as 
do rats in falling trees, or flies in forbidden food. 

But the greater number went forward until they 
came to Steam-mist-in-the-midst-of-watcrs. And they 
•aw the smoke of men's hearth fires and many housei 


scattered over the hills before them. When they came 
nearer, they challenged the people rudely, demanding 
who they were and why there, for in their last standing- 
place they had had touch of war. 

" We are the People of the Seed," said the men of 
the hearth-fires, ^^ bora elder brothers of ye, and led 
of the gods." 

" No," said our fathers, " we are led of the gods and 
we are the Seed People. . . ." 

Long lived the people in the town on the sunrise 
slope of the mountains of Kahluelawan, until the earth 
began to groan warningly again. Loath were they to 
leave the place of the Kaka and the lake of their dead. 
But the rumbling grew louder and the Twain Beloved 
called, and all together they journeyed eastward, seek- 
ing once more the Place of the Middle. But they 
grumbled amongst themselves, so when they came to a 
place of great promise, they said, " Let us stay here. 
Perhaps it may be the Place of the Middle." 

So they built houses there, larger and stronger than 
ever before, and more perfect, for they were strong in 
numbers and wiser, though yet unperfected as men. 
They called the place " The Place of Sacred Stealing." 

Long they dwelt there, happily, but growing wiser 
and stronger, so that, with their tails and dressed in the 
skhis of animals, they saw they were rude and ugly. 



In chase or in war, they were at a disadvantage, for 
they met older nations of men with whom they fought. 
No longer they feared the gods and monsters, but 
only their own kind. So therefore the gods called a 

"Changed shall ye be, oh our children," cried the 
Twain. '* Ye shall walk straight in the pathways, 
clothed in garments, and without tails, that ye may 
sit more straight in council, and without webs to your 
feet, or talons on your hands." 

So the people were arranged in procession like 
dancers. And the Twain with their weapons and fires 
of lightning shored off the forelocks hanging down 
over their faces, severed the talons, and slitted the 
webbed fingers and toes. Sore was the wounding and 
loud cried the foolish, when lastly the people were ar- 
ranged in procession for the razing of their tails. 

But those who stood at the end of the line, shrinking 
farther and farther, fled in their terror, climbing trees 
and high places, with loud chatter. Wandering far, 
sleeping ever in tree tops, in the far-away Summer- 
land, they are sometimes seen of far-walkers, long of 
tail and long handed, like wizened men-children. 

But the people grew in strength, and became more 
perfect, and more than ever went to war. They grew 
vain. They had reached the Place of the Middle. 



They said, " Let us not wearily wander forth again 
even though the earth tremble and the Twain bid us 

And even as they spoke, the mountain trembled and 
shook, though far-sounding. 

But as the people changed, changed also were the 
Twain, small and misshapen, hard-favored and un- 
yielding of will, strong of spirit, evil and bad. They 
taught the people to war, and led them far to the east- 

At last the people neared, in the midst of the plains 
to the eastward, great towns built in the heights. Great 
were the fields and possessions of this people, for they 
knew how to command and carry the waters, bringing 
new soil. And this, too, without hail or rain. So our 
ancients, hungry with long wandering for new food, 
were the more greedy and often gave battle. 

It was here that the Ancient Woman of the Elder 
People, who carried her heart in her rattle and was 
deathless of wounds in the body, led the enemy, cry- 
ing out shrilly. So it fell out ill for our fathers. For, 
moreover, thunder raged and confused their warriors, 
rain descended and blinded them, stretching their bow 
strings of sinew and quenching the flight of their ar- 
rows as the flight of bees is quenched by the sprinkling 
plume of the honey-hunter. But they devised bow 



strings of yucca and the Two Little Ones sought coun- 
sel of the Sun-father who revealed the life-secret of 
the Ancient Woman and the magic powers over the 
inder-fires of the dwellers of the mountains, so that our 
enemy in the mountain town was overmastered. And 
because our people found in that great town some hid- 
den deep in the cellars, and pulled them out as rats 
are pulled from a hollow cedar, and found them black- 
ened by the fumes of their war magic, yet wiser than 
the common people, they spared them and received 
them into their next of kin of the Black Corn. . . . 

But the tremblings and warnings still sounded, and 
the people searched for the stable Middle. 

Now they called a great council of men and the 

asts, birds, and insects of all kinds. After a long 

uncil it was said, 
Where is Water-skate? He has six legs, all very 
long. Perhaps he can feel with them to the uttermost 
of the six regions, and point out the very Middle." 

So Water-skate was summoned. But lo! It was the 
Sun-father in his likeness which appeared. And he 
lifted himself to the zenith and extended his fingerfeet 
to all the six regions, so that they touched the north, 
the great waters; the west, and the south, and the east, 
the great waters; and to the northeast the waters above. 
and to the southwest the waters below. But to the north 



his finger foot grew cold, so he drew it in. Then grad* 
ually he settled down upon the earth and said, ^^ Where 
my heart rests, mark a spot, and build a town of the 
Mid-most, for there shall be the Mid-most Place of the 

And his heart rested over the middle of the plain 
and valley of Zuni. And when he drew in his finger- 
legs, lol there were the trail-roads leading out and in 
like stays of a spider's nest, into and from the mid-most 
place he had covered. 

Here because of their good fortune in finding the 
stable Middle, the priest father called the town the 



Gallinomero {Russian River, Cal.) 

IN the earliest beginning, the darkness was thick 
and deep. There was no light. The animals ran 
here and there, always bumping into each other. 
The birds flew here and there, but continually knocked 
against each other. 

Hawk and Coyote thought a long time about the 
darkness. Then Coyote felt his way into a swamp and 
found a large number of dry tule reeds. He made a 
ball of them. He gave the ball to Hawk, with some 
flints, and Hawk flew up into the sky, where he touched 
off the tule reeds and sent the bundle whirling around 
the world. But still the nights were dark, so Coyote 
made another bundle of tule reeds, and Hawk flew into 
the air with them, and touched them off with the flints. 
But these reeds were damp and did not burn so well. 
—That is why the moon does not give so much light as 
s sun. 




Pai Ute {near Kern River, CaL) 

POKOH, Old Man, they say, created the world. 
Pokoh had many thoughts. He had many 
blankets in which he carried around gifts for 
men. He created every tribe out of the soil where they 
used to live. That is why an Indian wants to live and 
die in his native place. He was made of the same soil. 
Pokoh did not wish men to wander and travel, but to 
remain in their birthplace. 

Long ago. Sun was a man, and was bad. Moon was 
good. Sun had a quiver full of arrows, and they are 
deadly. Sun wishes to kill all things. 

Sun has two daughters (Venus and Mercury) and 
twenty men kill them ; but after fifty days, they return 
to life again. 

Rainbow is the sister of Pokoh, and her breast is 
covered with flowers. 

Lightning strikes the ground and fills the flint with 



fire. That is the origin of fire. Some say the beaver 
brought fire from the east, hauling it on his broad, flat 
tail. That is why the beaver's tail has no hair on it, 
even to this day. It was burned off. 

There are many worlds. Some have passed and some 
are still to come. In one world the Indians all creep ; 
in another they all walk ; in another they all fly. Per- 
haps in a world to come, Indians may walk on four 
legs ; or they may crawl like snakes ; or they may swim 
in the water like fish. 



Maidu {near Sacramento Valley, Col.) 

GREAT-MAN created the world and all the peo- 
ple. At first the earth was very hot, so hot 
it was melted, and that is why even to-day there 
is fire in the trunk and branches of trees, and in the 

Lightning is Great-Man himself coming down 
swiftly from his world above, and tearing apart the 
trees with his flaming arm. 

Thunder and Lightning are two great spirits who 
try to destroy mankind. But Rainbow is a good spirit 
who speaks gently to them, and persuades them to let 
the Indians live a little longer. 





Miwok (San Joaquin Valley, Cal.) 

AFTER Coyote had completed making the world, 
he began to think about creating man. He 
called a council of all the animals. The ani- 
als sat in a circle, just as the Indians do, with Lion 
the head, in an open space in the forest. On Lion's 
right was Grizzly Bear; next Cinnamon Bear; and so 
on to Mouse, who sat at Lion's left. 

Lion spoke first. Lion said he wished man to have 
a terrible voice, like himself, so that he could frighten 
all animals. He wanted man also to be well covered 
with hair, with fangs in his claws, and very strong 

Grizzly Bear laughed. He said it was ridiculous 
for any one to have such a voice as Lion, because when 
he roared he frightened away the very prey for which 
he was searching. But he said man should have very 
great strength ; that he should move silently, but very 
swiftly; and he should be able to seize his prey with- 
out noise. 

Buck said man would look foolish without antlers. 



And a terrible voice was absurd, but man should have 
ears like a spider's web, and eyes like fire. 

Mountain Sheep said the branching antlers would 
bother man if he got caught in a thicket If man had 
horns rolled up, so that they were like a stone on each 
side of his head, it would give his head weight enough 
to butt very hard. 

When it came Coyote's turn, he said the other ani- 
mals were foolish because they each wanted man to 
be just like themselves. Coyote was sure he could make 
a man who would look better than Coyote himself, 
or any other animal. Of course he would have to 
have four legs, with five fingers. Man should have a 
strong voice, but he need not roar all the time with it. 
And he should have feet nearly like Grizzly Bear's, 
because he could then stand erect when he needed to. 
Grizzly Bear had no tail, and man should not have 
any. The eyes and ears of Buck were good, and per- 
haps man should have those. Then there was Fish, 
which had no hair, and hair was a burden much of the 
year. So Coyote thought man should not wear fur. 
And his claws should be as long as the Eagle's, so that 
he could hold things in them. But no animal was as 
cunning and crafty as Coyote^ so man should have the 
wit of Coyote. 

Then Beaver talked. Beaver said man would have 




■ to have a tail, but it should be broad and flat, so he 
l could haul mud and sand on it. Not a furry tail, be- 
I cause they were troublesome on account of fleas. 
I Owl said man would be useless without wings. 
I But Mole said wings would be folly. Man would 
I be sure to bump against the sky. Besides, if he had 
"wings and eyes both, he would get his eyes burned out 

by flying too near the sun. But without eyes, he could 

burrow in the soft, cool earth where he could be happy. 

Mouse said man needed eyes so he could see what 

I he was eating. And nobody wanted to burrow in the 

■ damp earth. So the council broke up in a quarrel. 
Then every animal set to work to make a man ac- 

I cording to his own ideas. Each one took a lump of 
learth and modelled it just like himself. All but Coyote, 
lior Coyote began to make the kind of man he had 
I talked of in the council. 

It was late when the animals stopped work and fell 
laaleep. All but Coyote, for Coyote was the cunningest 
lof all the animals, and he stayed awake until he had 
I finished his model. He worked hard all night. When 
' the other animals were fast asleep he threw water on 
the lumps of earth, and so spoiled the models of the 

E animals. But in the morning he finished his 
and gave it life long before the others could fin- 
eirs. Thus man was made by Coyote. 



Ntshinam {near Bear River, Cat.) 

A I AHE first man created by Coyote was called 
I Aikut His wife was Yototowi. But the 
woman grew sick and died. Aikut dug a grave 
for her close beside his camp fire, for the Nishinam did 
not burn their dead then. All the light was gone from 
his life. He wanted to die, so that he could follow 
Yototowi, and he fell into a deep sleep. 

There was a rumbling sound and the spirit of Yoto- 
towi arose from the earth and stood beside him. He 
would have spoken to her, but she forbade him, for 
when an Indian speaks to a ghost he dies. Then she 
turned away and set out for the dance-house of ghosts. 
Aikut followed her. Together they journeyed through 
a great, dark country, until they came to a river which 
separated them from the Ghost-land. Over the river 
there was a bridge of but one small rope, so small that 
hardly Spider could crawl across it. Here the woman 
started off alone, but when Aikut stretched out his 
arms, she returned. Then she started again over the 
bridge of thread. And Aikut spoke to her, so that he 
died. Thus together they journeyed to the Spirit-land. 



Shastika [Cat.) 

ALONG time ago, while smoke still curled from 
the smoke hole of the tepee, a great storm arose. 
The storm shook the tepee. Wind blew the 
smoke down the smoke hole. Old Man Above said to 
Little Daughter: " Climb up to the smoke hole. Tell 
Wind to be quiet. Stick your arm cut of the smoke 
hole before you tell him." Little Daughter climbed 
up to the smoke hole and put out her arm. But Little 
Daughter put out her head also. She wanted to see 
the world. Little Daughter wanted to see the rivers 
and trees, and the white foam on the Bitter Waters. 
Wind caught Little Daughter by the hair. Wind 
pulled her out of the smoke hole and blew her down 
the mountain. Wind blew Little Daughter over the 
smooth ice and the great forests, down to the land of 
the Grizzlies. Wind tangled her hair and then left 
her cold and shivering near the tepees of the Grizzlies. 
Soon Grizzly came home. In those days Grizzly 
walked on two feet, and carried a big stick. Grizzly 
could talk as people do. Grizzly laid down the young 


elk he had killed and picked up Little Daughter. He 
took Little Daughter to his tepee. Then Mother 
Grizzly warmed her by the fire. Mother Grizzly gave 
her food to eat. 

Soon Little Daughter married the son of Grizzly. 
Their children were not Grizzlies. They were men. 
So the Grizzlies built a tepee for Little Daughter and 
her children. White men call the tepee Little Shasta. 

At last Mother Grizzly sent a son to Old Man 
Above. Mother Grizzly knew that Little Daughter 
was the child of Old Man Above, but she was afraid. 
She said : " Tell Old Man Above that Little Daughter 
is alive." 

Old Man Above climbed out of the smoke hole. He 
ran down the mountain side to the land of the Grizzlies. 
Old Man Above ran very quickly. Wherever he set 
his foot the snow melted. The snow melted very 
quickly and made streams of water. Now Grizzlies 
stood in line to welcome Old Man Above. They stood 
on two feet and carried clubs. Then Old Man Above 
saw his daughter and her children. He saw the new 
race of men. Then Old Man Above became very 
angry. He said to Grizzlies: 

" Never speak again. Be silent. Neither shall ye 

stand upright. Ye shall use your hands as feet. Ye 

shall look downward." 



Then Old Man Above put out the fire in the tepee. 
Smoke no longer curls from the smoke hole. He 
fastened the door of the tepee. The new race of men 
he drove out. Then Old Man Above took Little 
Daughter back to his tepee. 

That is why grizzlies walk on four feet and look 
downward. Only when fighting they stand on two feet 
and use their fists like men. 





Pima (Arizona) 

AFTER the world was ready, Earth Doctor made 
all kinds of animals and creeping things. 
Then he made images of clay, and told them 
to be people. After a while there were so many peo- 
ple that there was not food and water enough for all. 
They were never sick and none died. At last there 
grew to be so many they were obliged to eat each other. 
Then Earth Doctor, because he could not give them 
food and water enough, killed them all. He caught 
the hook of his staff into the sky and pulled it down so 
that it crushed all the people and all the animals, un- 
til there was nothing living on the earth. Earth Doc- 
tor made a hole through the earth with his stick, and 
through that he went, coming out safe, but alone, on 
the other side. 

He called upon the sun and moon to come out of 
the wreck of the world and sky, and they did so. But 
there was no sky for them to travel through, no stars, 

and no Milky Way. So Earth Doctor made these all 



over again. Then he created another race of men and 

Then Coyote was born. Moon was his mother. 
When Coyote was large and strong he came to the land 
where the Pima Indians lived. 

Then Elder Brother was born. Earth was his 
mother, and Sky his father. He was so powerful that 
he spoke roughly to Earth Doctor, who trembled be- 
fore him. The people began to increase in numbers, 
just as they had done before, but Elder Brother short- 
ened their lives, so the earth did not become so crowded. 
But Elder Brother did not like the people created by 
Earth Doctor, so he planned to destroy them again. So 
Elder Brother planned to create a magic baby. . . . 

The screams of the baby shook the earth. They could 
be heard for a great distance. Then Earth Doctor 
called all the people together, and told them there 
would be a great flood. He sang a magic song and 
then bored a hole through the flat earth-plain through 
to the other side. Some of the people went into the 
hole to escape the flood that was coming, but not very 
many got through. Some of the people asked Elder 
Brother to help them, but he did not answer. Only 
Coyote he answered. He told Coyote to find a big log 
and sit on it, so that he would float on the surface of 
the water with the driftwood. Elder Brother got into 


a big olla which he had made, and closed it tight So 
he rolled along on the ground under the oUa. He sang 
a magic song as he climbed into his olla. 

A young man went to the place where the baby was 
screaming. Its tears were a great torrent which cut 
gorges in the earth before it. The water was rising all 
over the earth. He bent over the child to pick it up, 
and immediately both became birds and flew above the 
flood. Only five birds were saved from the flood. One 
was a flicker and one a vulture. They clung by their 
beaks to the sky to keep themselves above the waters, 
but the tail of the flicker was washed by the waves and 
that is why it is stiff to this day. At last a god took 
pity on them and gave them power to make " nests of 
down " from their own breasts on which they floated 
on the water. One of these birds was the vipisimal, 
and if any one injures it to this day, the flood may come 

Now South Doctor called his people to him and 

told them that a flood was coming. He sang a magic 

song and he bored a hole in the ground with a cane so 

that people might go through to the other side. Others 

he sent to Earth Doctor, but Earth Doctor told them 

they were too late. So they sent the people to the top 

of a high mountain called Crooked Mountain. South 

Doctor sang a magic song and traced his cane around 



the mountain, but that held back the waters only for 
a short time. Four times he sang and traced a line 
around the mountain, yet the flood rose again each time. 
There was only one thing more to do. 

He held his magic crystals in his left hand and sang 
a song. Then he struck it with his cane. A thunder 
peal rang through the mountains. He threw his staff 
into the water and it cracked with a loud noise. Turn- 
ing, he saw a dog near him. He said, " How high is 
the tide?" The dog said, " It is very near the top." 
He looked at the people as he said it. When they 
heard his voice they all turned to stone. They stood 
just as they were, and they are there to this day in 
groups: some of the men talking, some of the women 
cooking, and some crying. 

But Earth Doctor escaped by enclosing himself in 
his reed staff, which floated upon the water. Elder 
Brother rolled along in his olla until he came near the 
mouth of the Colorado River. The olla is now called 
Black Mountain. After the flood he came out and 
visited all parts of the land. 

WTien he met Coyote and Earth Doctor, each claimed 
to have been the first to appear after the flood, but at 
last they admitted Elder Brother was the first, so he 
became ruler of the world. 




Pima {Arizona) 

ONCE upon a time, when all the eardi was 
flooded^ two birds were hanging above the 
water. They were clinging to the sky with 
their beaks. The larger bird was gray with a long tail 
and beak, but the smaller one was the tiny bird that 
builds a nest shaped like an olla, with only a very small 
opening at the top. The birds were tired and fright- 
ened. The larger one cried and cried, but the little 
bird held on tight and said, " Don't cry. I 'm littler 
than you are, but I 'm very brave." 




Ashochimi {Coast Indians, Cal.) 

LONG ago there was a great flood which destroyed 
J all the people in the world. Only Coyote was 
saved. When the waters subsided, the earth 
was empty. Coyote thought about it a long time. 

Then Coyote collected a great bundle of tall feath- 
ers from owls, hawks, eagles, and buzzards. He jour- 
neyed over the whole earth and carefully located the 
site of each Indian village. Where the tepees had 
stood, he planted a feather in the ground and scraped 
up the dirt around it. The feathers sprouted like trees, 
and grew up and branched. At last they turned into 
men and women. So the world was inhabited with 
people again. 



Sia {New Mexico) 

FOR a long time after the fight, the people were 
very happy, but the ninth year was very bad. 
The whole earth was filled with water. The 
water did not fall in rain, but came in as rivers between 
the mesas. It continued to flow in from all sides until 
the people and the animals fled to the mesa tops. The 
water continued to rise until nearly level with the tops 
of the mesas. Then Sussistinnako cried, " Where shall 
my people go? Where is the road to the north? " He 
looked to the north. " Where is the road to the west? 
Where is the road to the east? Where is the road to 
the south?" He looked in each direction. He said, 
" I see the waters are everywhere." 

All of the medicine men sang four days and four 
nights, but still the waters continued to rise. 

Then Spider placed a huge reed upon the top of 
the mesa. He said, " My people will pass up through 
this to the world above." 

Utset led the way, carrying a sack in which were 

many of the Star people. The medicine men followed, 


carrying sacred things in sacred blankets on their backs. 
Then came the people, and the animals, and the snakes, 
and birds. The turkey was far behind and the foam 
of the water rose and reached the tip ends of his feath- 
ers. You may know that is true because even to this 
day they bear the mark of the waters. 

When they reached the top of the great reed, the 
earth which formed the floor of the world above, barred 
their way. Utset called to Locust, " Man, come here." 
Locust went to her. She said, " You know best how 
to pass through the earth. Go and make a door for 

I ifli 

*' Very well, mother," said Locust. " I think I can 
make a way." 

He began working with his feet and after a while 
he passed through the earthy floor, entering the upper 
world. As soon as he saw it, he said to Utset, " It is 
good above." 

Utset called Badger, and said, " Make a door for us. 
Sika, the Locust has made one, but it is very small." 

" Very well, mother, I will," said Badger. 

After much work he passed into the world above, 

id said, 
Mother, I have opened the way." Badger also 
said, " Father-mother, the world above is good." 

Utset then called Deer. She said, " You go through 


first. If you can get your head through, others may 

The deer returned saying, " Father, it is all rig^t 
I passed without trouble." 

Utset called Elk. She said, ^^You pass through- 
If you can get your head and horns through the door, 
all may pass." 

Elk returned saying, " Father, it is good. I passed 
without trouble." 

Then Utset told the buflfalo to try, and he returned 
saying, " Father-mother, the door is good. I passed 
without trouble." 

Utset called the scarab beetle and gave him the sack 
of stars, telling him to pass out first with them. Scarab 
did not know what the sack contained, but he was very 
small and grew tired carrying it. He wondered what 
could be in the sack. After entering the new world 
he was so tired he laid down the sack and peeped into 
it. He cut only a tiny hole, but at once the Star People 
flew out and filled the heavens everywhere. 

Then Utset and all the people came, and after 
Turkey passed, the door was closed with a great rock 
so that the waters from below could not follow them. 

Then Utset looked for the sack with the Star People. 

She found it nearly empty and could not tell where the 

stars had gone. The little beetle sat by, very much 



frightened and very sad. But Utset was angry and 
said, ** You are bad and disobedient From this time 
forth, you shall be blind." That is the reason the 
scarabseus has no eyes, so the old ones say. 

But the little fellow had saved a few of the stars by 
grasping the sack and holding it fast. Utset placed 
these in the heavens. In one group she placed seven 
— the great bear. In another, three. In another group 
she placed the Pleiades, and threw the others far off 
into the sky. 




Tolonva {Del Norte Co., Col.) 

ALONG time ago there came a great rain. It 
lasted a long time and the water kept rising 
till all the valleys were submerged, and the 
Indian tribes fled to the high lands. But the water 
rose, and though the Indians fled to the highest point, 
all were swept away and drowned — all but one man 
and one woman. They reached the very highest peak 
and were saved. These two Indians ate the fish from 
the waters around them. 

Then the waters subsided. All the game was gone, 
and all the animals. But the children of these two 
Indians, when they died, became the spirits of deer and 
bear and insects, and so the animals and insects came 
back to the earth again. 

The Indians had no fire. The flood had put out 

all the fires in the world. They looked at the moon 

and wished they could secure fire from it. Then the 

Spider Indians and the Snake Indians formed a plan 

to steal fire. The Spiders wove a very light balloon, 

and fastened it by a long rope to the earth. Then they 



climbed into the balloon and started for the moon. 
But the Indians of the Moon were suspicious of the 
Earth Indians. The Spiders said, " We came to gam- 
ble." The Moon Indians were much pleased and all 
the Spider Indians began to gamble with them. They 
sat by the fire. 

Then the Snake Indians sent a man to climb up the 
long rope from the earth to the moon. He climbed 
the rope, and darted through the fire before the Moon 
Indians understood what he had done. Then he slid 
down the rope to earth again. As soon as he touched 
the earth he travelled over the rocks, the trees, and the 
dry sticks lying upon the ground, giving fire to each. 
Everything he touched contained fire. So the world 
became bright again, as it was before the flood. 

When the Spider Indians came down to earth again, 
they were immediately put to death, for the tribes were 
afraid the Moon Indians might want revenge. 




Maidu [near Sacramento Valley, Col.) 

LONG, long ago the Indians living in Sacramento 
J Valley were happy. Suddenly there came the 
swift sound of rushing waters, and the valley 
became like Big Waters, which no man can measure. 
The Indians fled, but many slept beneath the wares. 
Also the frogs and the salmon pursued them and they 
ate many Indians. Only two who fled into the 
foothills escaped. To these two. Great Man gave 
many children, and many tribes arose. But one great 
chief ruled all the nation. The chief went out upon a 
wide knoll overlooking Big Waters, and he knew that 
the plains of his people were beneath the waves. Nine 
sleeps he lay on the knoll, thinking thoughts of these 
great waters. Nine sleeps he lay without food, and his 
mind was thinking always of one thing: How did 
this deep water cover the plains of the world? 

At the end of nine sleeps he was changed. He was 
not like himself. No arrow could wound him. He was 

like Great Man for no Indian could slay him. Then 



he spoke to Great Man and commanded him to banish 
the waters from the plains of his ancestors. Great 
Man tore a hole in the mountain side, so that the wa- 
ters on the plains flowed into Big Waters. Thus the 
Sacramento River was formed. 




Karok {near Klamath River, Cal.) 

A GREAT many hundred snows ago, Kareya, sit- 
ting on the Sacred Stool, created the world. 
First, he made the fishes in the Big Water, 
then the animals on the green land, and last of all, 
Man I But at first the animals were all alike in power. 
No one knew which animals should be food for others, 
and which should be food for man. Then Kareya or- 
dered them all to meet in one place, that Man might 
give each his rank and his power. So the animals all 
met together one evening, when the sun was set, to 
wait overnight for the coming of Man on the next 
morning. Kareya also commanded Man to make bows 
and arrows, as many as there were animals, and to 
give the longest one to the animal which was to have 
the most power, and the shortest to the one which 
should have least power. So he did, and after nine 
sleeps his work was ended, and the bows and arrows 
which he had made were very many. 
Now the animals, being all together, went to sleep, 

so they might be ready to meet Man on the next mora- 




ing. But Coyote was exceedingly cunning — he was 
cunning above all the beasts. Coyote wanted the long- 
est bow and the greatest power, so he could have all 
the other animals for his meat. He decided to stay 
awake all night, so that he would be first to meet Man 
in the morning. So he laughed to himself and 
stretched his nose out on his paw and pretended to 
$Icep. About midnight he began to be sleepy. He 
had to walk around the camp and scratch his eyes to 
keep them open. He grew more sleepy, so that he had 
to skip and jump about to keep awake. But he made 
so much noise, he awakened some of the other animals. 
When the morning star came up, he was too sleepy to 
keep his eyes open any longer. So he took two little 
sticks, and sharpened them at the ends, and propped 
open his eyelids. Then he felt safe. He watched the 
morning star, with his nose stretched along his paws, 
and fell asleep. The sharp sticks pinned his eyelids 
fast together. 

The morning star rose rapidly into the sky. The 
birds began to sing. The animals woke up and 
stretched themselves, but still Coyote lay fast asleep. 
When the sun rose, the animals went to meet Man. He 
gave the longest bow to Cougar, so he had greatest 
power; the second longest he gave to Bear; others he 
gave to the other animals, giving all but the last to 



Frog. But the shortest one was left Man cried out, 
^^What animal have I missed?'' Then the animak 
began to look about and found Coyote fast asleep^ widi 
his eyelids pinned together. All the anunals began 
to laugh, and they jumped upon Coyote and danced 
upon him. Then they led him to Man, still blinded^ 
and Man pulled out the sharp sticks and gave him ihit 
shortest bow of all. It would hardly shoot an arrow 
farther than a foot. All the animals laughed. 

But Man took pity on Coyote, because he was now 
weaker even than Frog. So at his request, Rareya 
gave him cunning, ten times more than before, so that 
he was cunning above all the animals of the wood. 
Therefore Coyote was friendly to Man and his chil- 
dren, and did many things for them. 



Pat Ute {near Kern River, Cat.) 

ALONG time ago, Coyote wanted to go to the 
sun. He asked Pokoh, Old Man, to show him 
the trail. Coyote went straight out on this 
trail and he travelled it all day. But Sun went round 
so that Coyote came back at night to the place from 
which he started in the morning. 

The next morning, Coyote asked Pokoh to show him 
the trail. Pokoh showed him, and Coyote travelled all 
day and came back at night to the same place again. 

But the third day, Coyote started early and went out 
on the trail to the edge of the world and sat down on 
the hole where the sun came up. While waiting for 
the sun he pointed with his bow and arrow at different 
places and pretended to shoot. He also pretended not 
to see the sun. When Sun came up, he told Coyote to 
get out of his way. Coyote told him to go around; that 
it was his trail. But Sun came up under him and he had 
to hitch forward a little. After Sun came up a little 
farther, it began to get hot on Coyote's shoulder, so 
he spit on his paw and rubbed his shoulder. Then he 



wanted to ride up with the sun. Sun said, '* Oh, no '' ; 
but Coyote insisted. So Coyote climbed up on Sun, 
and Sun started up the trail in the sky. The trail was 
marked off into steps like a ladder. As Sun went up 
he counted ^^ one, two, three/' and so on. By and by 
Coyote became very thirsty, and he asked Sun for a 
drink of- water. Sun gave him an acorn-cup full. 
Coyote asked him why he had no more. About noon- 
time, Coyote became very impatient. It was very hot. 
Sun told him to shut his eyes. Coyote shut them, but 
opened them again. He kept opening and shutting 
them all the afternoon. At night, when Sun came 
down. Coyote took hold of a tree. Then he clambered 
off Sun and climbed down to the earth. 




Sia (New Mexico) 

SUSSISTINNAKO, the spider, said to the sun, 
" My son, you will ascend and pass over the 
world above. You will go from north to south. 
Return and tell me what you think of it." 
The sun said, on his return, " Mother, I did as you 
' bade mc, and I did not like the road." 

Spider told him to ascend and pass over the world 
from west to the east. On his return, the sun said, 

" It may be good for some, mother, but I did not 
like it." 

Spider said, " You will again ascend and pass over 
the straight road from the east to the west. Return 
and tell me what you think of it." 

That night the sun said, " I am much contented. I 
like that road much." 

Sussistinnako said, " My son, you will ascend each 
day and pass over the world from east to west." 

Upon each day's journey the sun stops midway from 
the east to the centre of the world to eat his breakfast 


In the centre he stops to eat his dinnen Halfway from 
the centre to the west he stops to eat his supper. He 
never fails to eat these three meals each day, and al- 
ways stops at the same points. 

The sun wears a shirt of dressed deerskin, widi leg- 
gings of the same reaching to his diighs. The shirt 
and leggings are fringed. His moccasins are also of 
deerskin and embroidered in yellow, red, and turkis 
beads. He wears a kilt of deerskin, haying a snake 
painted upon it. He carries a bow and arrows, the 
quiver being of cougar skin, hanging over his shoulder, 
and he holds his bow in his left hand and an arrow in 
his right. He always wears the mask which protects 
him from the sight of the people of Ha-arts. 

At the top of the mask is an eagle plume with par- 
rot plumes ; an eagle plume is at each side, and one at 
the bottom of the mask. The hair around the head and 
face is red like fire, and when it moves and shakes 
people cannot look closely at the mask. It is not in- 
tended that they should observe closely, else they would 
know that instead of seeing the sun they see only his 

The moon came to the upper world with the sun and 
he also wears a mask. 

Each night the sun passes by the house of Sussistin- 



nako, the spider, who asks him, '^ How are my children 
above? How many hare died to-day? How many 
have been bora to-day? " The sun lingers only long 
enough to answer his questions. He then passes on to 
his house in the east 




Yurok (near Klamath River, CaL) 

ONCE upon a time, the Foxes were angry widi 
Sun. They held a council about the matter. 
Then twelve Foxes were selected — twelve of 
the bravest to catch Sun and tie him down. They made 
ropes of sinew ; then the twelve watched until the Sun, 
as he followed the downward trail in the sky, touched 
the top of a certain hill. Then the Foxes caught Sun, 
and tied him fast to the hill. But the Indians saw 
them, and they killed the Foxes with arrows. Then 
they cut the sinews. But the Sun had burned a great 
hole in the ground. The Indians know the story is 
true, because they can see the hole which Sun burned. 



Karok (near Klamath River, Cal.) 

THERE was no fire on earth and the Karoks 
were cold and miserable. Far away to the 
east, hidden in a treasure box, was fire which 
Kareya had made and given to two old hags, lest the 
, Karoks should steal it. So Coyote decided to steal fire 
I for the Indians. 

Coyote called a great council of the animals. After 
[ the council he stationed a line from the land of the 
Karoks to the distant land where the fire was kept. 
Lion was nearest the Fire Land, and Frog was nearest 
the Karok land. Lion was strongest and Frog was 
weakest, and the other animals took their places, ac- 
cording to the power given them by Man. 

Then Coyote took an Indian with him and went to 
the hill top, but he hid the Indian under the hill. Coy- 
l ote went to the tepee of the hags. He said, " Good- 
evening." They replied, " Good-evening." 
Coyote said, " It is cold out here. Can you let me 
* sit by the fire?" So they let him sit by the fire. He 
was only a coyote. He stretched his nose out along 
his forepaws and pretended to go to sleep, but he kept 




the corner of one eye open watching. So he spent all 
night watching and thinking, but he had no chance to 
get a piece of the fire. 

The next morning Coyote held a council widi the 
Indian. He told him when he, Coyote, was within die 
tepee, to attack it. Then Coyote went back to die fire. 
The hags let him in again. He was only a coyote. 
But Coyote stood close by the casket of fire. The In- 
dian made a dash at the tepee. The hags rushed out 
after him, and Coyote seized a fire brand in his teeth 
and flew over the ground. The hags saw the sparks 
flying and gave chase. But Coyote reached Lion, who 
ran with it to Grizzly Bear. Grizzly Bear ran with it 
to Cinnamon Bear; he ran with it to Wolf, and at last 
the fire came to Ground-Squirrel. Squirrel took the 
brand and ran so fast that his tail caught fire. He 
curled it up over his back, and burned the black spot 
in his shoulders. You can see it even to-day. Squirrel 
came to Frog, but Frog could n't run. He opened his 
mouth wide and swallowed the fire. Then he jumped 
but the hags caught his tail. Frog jumped again, but 
the hags kept his tail. That is why Frogs have no tail, 
even to this day. Frog swam under water, and came 
up on a pile of driftwood. He spat out the fire into 
the dry wood, and that is why there is fire in dry wood 
even to-day. When an Indian rubs two pieces together, 

the fire comes out. 




Sia {Netv Mexico) 

ALONG, long time ago, the people became tired 
of feeding on grass, like deer and wild animals, 
and they talked together how fire might be 
nd. The Ti-amoni said, " Coyote is the best man 
"to steal fire from the world below," so he sent for 

When Coyote came, the Ti-amoni said, "The peo- 
ple wish for fire. We are tired of feeding on grass. 
You must go to the world below and bring the fire." 
Coyote said, " It is well, father. I will go." 
So Coyote slipped stealthily to the house of Sussis- 
tinnako. It was the middle of the night. Snake, who 
guarded the first door, was asleep, and he slipped 
quickly and quietly by. Cougar, who guarded the sec- 
ond door, was asleep, and Coyote slipped by. Bear, 
ho guarded the third door, was also sleeping. At the 
rth door, Coyote found the guardian of the fire 
asleep. Slipping through Into the room of Sussistin- 
nako he found him also sleeping. 
Coyote quickly lighted the cedar brand which was 

^m Coy< 


attached to his tail and hurried out Spider awoke, 


just enough to know some one was leaving die nxmL 
" Who is there? " he cried. Then he called, " Some 
one has been here.'' But before he could waken the 
sleeping Bear and Cougar and Snake, Coyote had al* 
most reached the upper world. 




Sia {New Mexico) 

AFTER the flood, the Sia returned to Ha-arts, the 
earth. They came through an opening in the 
far north. After they had remained at their 
first village a year, they wished to pass on, but the earth 
was very moist and Utset was puzzled how to harden 

Utset called Cougar. She said, " Have you any med- 
icine to harden the road so that we may pass over it? " 
Cougar replied, " I will try, mother." But after go- 
ing a short distance over the road, he sank to his shoul- 
ders in the wet earth. He returned much afraid and 
told Utset that he could go no farther. 

Then she sent for Bear. She said, " Have you any 
medicine to harden the road?" Bear started out, but 
he sank to his shoulders, and returned saying, " I can do 

Then Utset called Badger, and he tried. She called 
Shrew, and he failed. She called Wolf, and he failed. 
^ Then Utset returned to the lower world and asked 


Sussistinnako what she could do to harden die earth 
so that her people might travel over it He askedi 
" Have you no medicine to make the earth firm? Have 
you asked Cougar and Wolf, Bear and Badger and 
Wolf to use their medicines to harden the earth? " 

Utset said, " I have tried all these." 

Then Sussistinnako said, ^^ Others will understand/' 
He told her to have a woman of the Kapina (spider) 
clan try to harden the earth. 

When the woman arrived, Utset said, " My mother, 
Sussistinnako tells me the Kapina society understand 
how to harden the earth." 

The woman said, " I do not know how to make the 
earth hard." 

Three times Utset asked the woman about hardening 
the earth, and three times the woman said, " I do not 
know." The fourth time the woman said, "Well, I 
guess I know. I will try." 

So she called together the members of the Spider 
society, the Kapina, and said, 

"Our mother, Sussistinnako, bids us work for her 
and harden the earth so that the people may pass over 
it." The spider woman first made a road of fine cot- 
ton which she produced from her own body, and sus- 
pended it a few feet above the earth. Then she told 



the people they could travel on that. But the people 
were afraid to trust themselves to such a frail road. 

Then Utset said, " I wish a man and not a woman 
of the Spider society to work for me." 

Then he came. He threw out a charm of wood, lat- 
ticed so it could be expanded or contracted. When it 
was extended it reached to the middle of the earth. He 
threw it to the south, to the east, and to the west; then 
he threw it toward the people in the north. 

So the earth was made firm that the people might 
, travel upon it 

Soon after Utset said, " I will soon leave you. I will, 
■ return to the home from which I came." 

Then she selected a man of the Corn clan. She said 
to him, " You will be known as Ti-amoni (arch-ruler) . 
You will be to my people as myself. You will pass 
with them over the straight road. I give to you all 
my wisdom, my thoughts, my heart, and all. I fill 
your mind with my mind." 

He replied: " It is well, mother. I will do as you 





Zuni {New Mexico) 


NOW the Twain Beloved and the priest-fathers 
gathered in council for the naming and selec- 
tion of man-groups and creature-kinds, and 
things. So they called the people of the southern space 
the Children of Summer, and those who loved the sun 
most became the Sun people. Others who loved the 
water became the Toad people, or Turtle people, or 
Frog people. Others loved the seeds of the earth and 
became the Seed people, or the people of the First- 
growing grass, or of the Tobacco. Those who loved 
warmth were the Fire or Badger people. According 
to their natures they chose their totems. 

And so also did the People of Winter, or the People 
of the North. Some were known as the Bear people, 
or the Coyote people, or Deer people; others as the 
Crane people, Turkey people, or Grouse people. So 
the Badger people dwelt in a warm place, even as the 
badgers on the sunny side of hills burrow, finding a 

dwelling amongst the dry roots whence is fire. 





Hopi {Arizona) 

FTER the Hopi had been taught to build stone 
houses, they took separate ways. My people 
were the Snake people. They lived in snake 
ft^ins, each family occupying a separate snake skin bag. 
' All were hung on the end of a rainbow which swung 
around until the end touched Navajo Mountain. Then 
the bags dropped from it. Wherever a bag dropped, 
there was their house. After they arranged their bags 
they came out from them as men and women, and they 
then built a stone house which had five sides. Then 
a brilliant star arose in the southeast. It would shine 
for a while and disappear. 

The old men said, " Beneath that star there must be 
people." They decided to travel to it. They cut a 
staff and set it in the ground and watched until the 
star reached its top. Then they started and travelled 
as long as the star shone. When it disappeared they 
halted. But the star did not shine every night. Some- 
times many years passed before it appeared again. 


When this occurred, the people built houses during 
their halt They built round houses and square houses, 
and all the ruins between here and Navajo Mountain 
mark the places where our people lived. They waited 
until the star came to the top of the staff again, but 
when they moved on, many people remained in those 

When our people reached Waipho (a spring a few 
miles from Walpi) the star vanished. It has never 
been seen since. They built a house there, but Mas- 
auwu, the God of the Face of the Earth, came and 
compelled the people to move about halfway between 
the East Mesa and the Middle Mesa and there they 
stayed many plantings. One time when the old men 
were assembled, the god came among them, looking 
like a horrible skeleton and rattling his bones. But 
he could not frighten them. So he said, " I have lost 
my wager. All that I have is yours. Ask for anything 
you want and I will give it to you." 

At that time, our people's house was beside the wa- 
ter course. The god said, " Why do you sit there in 
the mud? Go up yonder where it is dry." 

So they went across to the west side of the mesa near 
the point and built a house and lived there. 

Again when the old men assembled two demons 



came among them, but the old men took the great Baho 

and chased them away. 
Other Hopi (Hopituh) came into this country from 

time to time and old people said, '' Build here/' or 

^' Build there/' and portioned the land among the 



■ " ■■ 



Walpi {Arizona) 

IN the long ago, the Snake, Horn, and Eagle people 
lived here (in Tusayan) but their corn grew only 
a span high and when they sang for rain, the Cloud 
god sent only a thin mist. My people lived then in 
the distant Pa-lat Kwa-bi in the South. There was a 
very bad old man there. When he met any one he 
would spit in their faces. • • . He did all manner 
of evil. Baholihonga got angry at this and turned the 
world upside down. Water spouted up through the 
kivas and through the fire places in the houses. The 
earth was rent in great chasms, and water covered ev- 
erything except one narrow ridge of mud. Across this 
the Serpent-god told all the people to travel. As they 
journeyed across, the feet of the bad slipped and they 
fell into the dark water. The good people, after many 
days, reached dry land. 

While the water was rising around the village, the 
old people got on top of the houses. They thought 
they could not struggle across with the younger people. 

But Baholihonga clothed them with the skins of tur- 



keys. They spread their wings out and floated in the 
air just above the surface of the water, and in this way 
they got across. There were saved of us, the Water 
people, the Corn people, the Lizard, Horned-toad, and 
Sand peoples, two families of Rabbit, and the Tobacco 
people. The turkey tail dragged in the water. That 
is why there is white on the turkey's tail now. This 
is also the reason why old people use turkey-feathers 
at the religious ceremonies. 




Pima {Arizona) 

AFTER the waters of the flood had gone dowii| 
Elder Brother said to Coyote, " Do not touch 
that black bug; and do not eat the mesquite 
beans. It is dangerous to harm anything that came 
safe through the flood." 

So Coyote went on, but presently he came to the 
black bug. He stopped and ate it up. Then he went 
on to the mesquite beans. He stopped and looked at 
them a while, and then said, '' I will just taste one and 
that will be all." But he stood there and ate and ate 
until he had eaten them all up. And the bug and the 
beans swelled up in his stomach and killed him. 




Yakuts (near Fresno, Cal.) 

ONCE there was a time when there was nothing 
in the world but water. About the place where 
Tulare Lake is now, there was a pole standing 
fizT up out of the water, and on this pole perched Hawk 
and Crow. First Hawk would sit on the pole a while, 
then Crow would knock him off and sit on It himself. 
Thus they sat on the top of the pole above the water 
for many ages. At last they created the birds which 
prey on fish. They created Kingfisher, Eagle, Pelican, 
and others. They created also Duck. Duck was very 
small but she dived to the bottom of the water, took 
a beakful of mud, and then died in coming to the top 
of the water. Duck lay dead floating on the water. 
Then Hawk and Crow took the mud from Duck's beak, 
and began making the mountains. 

They began at the place now known as Ta-hi-cha-pa 
Pass, and Hawk made the east range. Crow made the 
west one. They pushed the mud down hard into the 
water and then piled it high. They worked toward 


the north. At last Hawk and Crow met at Mount 
Shasta. Then their work was done. But vhea Aey^ 
looked at their mountains, Crow's range was much 
larger than Hawk*s. 

Hawk said to Crow, " How did this happen, you 
rascal? You have been stealing earth from my bill. 
That is why your mountains are the biggest." Crow 

Then Hawk chewed some Indian ubacco. That 
made him wise. At once he took hold of the moun- 
tains and turned them around almost in a circle. He 
put his range where Crow's had been. That is why 
the Sierra Nevada Range is larger than the Coast Range. 




(Explanatory) ' 

MR. STEPHEN POWERS claims that there 
is no such word in the Miwok language as 
" The valley has always been known to them, and is 
to this day, when speaking among themselves, as 
A-wa'-ni. This, it is true, is only the name of one of 
the ancient villages which it contained; but by prom- 
inence it gave its name to the valley, and in accordance 
with Indian usage almost everywhere, to the inhabitants 
of the same. The word Yosemite is simply a very 
beautiful and sonorous corruption of the word for 
grizzly bear. On the Stanislaus and north of it, the 
word is U'zu'-mai-ti; at Little Gap, o-so'-mai-tt; in 
Yosemite itself, u-zu'-mai-ti; on the South Fork of the 
Merced, uh-zu'-mai-tuh. . . . 

"In the following list, the signification of the name 
I given whenever there is any known to the Indians: 

_ ' The explanation given above is that made by Mr. Stephen 
Powers, in Vol, 3, U. S. Geographical and Geological Survey of the 
Rocky Mountain region, Part a. Contributions to North American 

_Ethoology, 1877. 




" Wa-kal'-la (the river), Merced River. 

" Lung-u-tu-ku'-ya, Ribbon Fall. 

" Po'-ho-no, Po-ho'-fio (though the first is probably 
the more correct), Bridal-Veil Fall. . . . This 
word is said to signify * evil wind.* The only ' evil 
wind ' that an Indian knows of is a whirlwind, which 
is poi'i'-cka or Kan'-u-ma. 

" Tu-tok-a-nu'-la, El Capitan. ' Measuring-worm 
stone.' [Legend is given elsewhere.] 

" Ko-su'-ko, Cathedral Rock. 

" Pu-si'-na, and Chuk'-ka (the squirrel and the acom- 
cache), a tall, sharp needle, with a smaller one at its 
base, just east of Cathedral Rock. . . . The sav- 
ages . . . imagined here a squirrel nibbling at the 
base of an acorn granary. 

'* Loi'-a, Sentinel Rock. 

" Sak'-ka-du-eh, Sentinel Dome. 

"ChoMok (the fall), Yosemite Fall. This is the 
generic word for ' fall.' 

"Ma'-ta (thecaiion), Indian Caflon. A generic 
word, in explaining which the Indians hold up bodi 
hands to denote perpendicular walls. 

"Ham'-mo-ko (usually contracted to Ham'-moak), 
. . . broken debris lying at the foot of the walls. 

" U-zu'-mai-ti La'-wa-tuh (grizzly bear skin) , 
Glacier Rock . . . from the grayish, grizzled ap- 
pearance of the wall. 



" Cho-ko-nip'-o-deh (baby-basket), Royal Arches. 
This . . . canopy-rock bears no little resemblance 

II an Indian baby-basket. Another form is cho-ko'-ni, 
k literally ... * dog-house.' 
^Pai-wai'-ak (white water?), Vernal Fall. 
PYo-wai-yi, Nevada Fall. In this word is detected 
m root of A-waia, ' a lake ' or body of water. 
■* Tis-se'-yak, South Dome. [See legend elsewhere.] 
pTo-ko'-ye, North Dome, husband of Tisseyak. 
See legend elsewhere.] 
" Shun'-ta, Hun'-ta (the eye), Watching Eye. 
" A-wai'-a (a lake), Mirror Lake. 
" Sa-wah' (a gap), a name occurring frequently. 
" Wa-ha'-ka, a village which stood at the base of 
Three Brothers; also the rock itself. This was the 
Mternmost village in the rallcy. 
["There were nine villages in Yosemite Valley and 
formerly others extending as far down as the 
Bridal Veil Fall, which were destroyed in wars that 
occurred before the whites came." 





Tosemite VMej 

THERE were once two little boys living in the 
valley who went down to the river to swim. 
After paddling and splashing about to their 
hearts' content, they went on shore and crept up on a 
huge boulder which stood beside the water. They lay 
down in the warm sunshine to dry themselves, but fell 
asleep. They slept so soundly that they knew nothing, 
though the great boulder grew day by day, and rose 
night by night, until it lifted them up beyond the sight 
of their tribe, who looked for them everywhere. 

The rock grew until the boys were lifted high into 
the heaven, even far up above the blue sky, until they 
scraped their faces against the moon. And still, year 
after year, among the clouds they slept. 

Then there was held a great council of all the ani-* 
mals to bring the boys down from the top of the great 
rock. Every animal leaped as high as he could up die 
face of the rocky wall. Mouse could only jump as 
high as one's hand ; Rat, twice as high. Then Raccoon 




be cmld jump a Utde fanbcr. One after an- 
of the animal* tried, and Grizzly Bear made a 
leap iar Dp the wall, but fell back. Last of all 
Lkm tried, md be jumped farther than any other ani- 
mal, hot fell down upon his ba<^. Then came tiny 
Measnring-Wbnn, and began to creep up the rock. 
Soaa be readied as high as Raccoon had jumped, then 
IS bi^ as Bear, then as high as Lion's leap, and by and 
by be was oat of sight, climbing up the face of the rock. 
For one whole wow, Measuring-Worm climbed the 
rock, and at last he reached the top. Then he wakened 
die boys, and came down the same way he went up, and 
brought them down safely to the ground. Therefore 
rock is called Tutokanula, the measuring worm, 
white men call it El Capitan. 



Tosemite Valley .1 

TISSEYAK and her husband journeyed from a 
country very far off, and entered the valley of 
the Yosemite foot-sore from travel. She bore 
a great heavy conical basket, strapped across her head. 
Tisseyak came first Her husband followed with a 
rude staff and a light roll of skins on his back. They 
were thirsty after their long journey across the moun- 
tains. They hurried forward to drink of the waters, 
and the woman was still in advance when she reached 
Lake Awaia. Then she dipped up the water in her 
basket and drank of it. She drank up all the water. 
The lake was dry before her husband reached it And 
because the woman drank all the water, there came a 
drought The earth dried up. There was no grass, 
nor any green thing. 

But the man was angry because he had no water to 
drink. He beat the woman with his staff and she fled, 
but he followed and beat her even more. Then the 
woman wept In her anger she turned and flung her 



basket at the man. And even then they were changed 
into stone. The woman's basket lies upturned beside 
the man. The woman's face is tear-stained, with long 
dark lines trailing down. 

South Dome is the woman and North Dome is the 
husband. The Indian woman cuts her hair straight 
across the forehead, and allows the sides to drop along 
her cheeks, forming a square face. 




TosemUe Vailey 

(As given by Mr. Stephen Powers, 1877.)* 

THERE is a lake-like expansion of the Upper 
Tuolumne some four miles long and from a 
half mile to a mile wide, directly north of 
Hatchatchie Valley (erroneously spelled Hetch 
Hetchy). It appears to have no name an]iong Amer- 
icans, but the Indians call it O-wai-a-nuh, which Is 
manifestly a dialectic variation of a-tvai'-a, the generic 
word for '* lake." Nat. Screech, a veteran mountaineer 
and hunter, states that he visited this region in 1850, 
and at that time there was a valley along the river hav- 
ing the same dimensions that this lake now has. Again, 
in 1855, he happened to pass that way and discovered 
that the lake had been formed as it now exists. He 
was at a loss to account for its origin ; but subsequently 
he acquired the Miwok language as spoken at Little 
Gap, and while listening to the Indians one day he 

* {Vol. 3, Part 2, U. S. Geographical and Geological Survey of 
the Rocky Mountain region: Contributions to North American 
Ethnology, 1877.) 



overheard them casually refer to the formation of this 
lake in an extraordinary manner. On being questioned 
they stated that there had been a tremendous cataclysm 
in that valley, the bottom of it having fallen out ap- 
parently, whereby the entire valley was submerged in 
the waters of the river. As nearly as he could ascer- 
tain from their imperfect methods of reckoning time, 
this occurred in 1851; and in that year, while in the 
town of Sonora, Screech and many others remembered 
to have heard a huge explosion in that direction which 
they then supposed was caused by a local earthquake. 

On Drew's Ranch, Middle Fork of the Tuolumne, 
lives an aged squaw called Dish-i, who was in the val- 
ley when this remarkable event occurred. According 
to her account the earth dropped in beneath their feet, 
and waters of the river leaped up and came rushing 
upon them in a vast, roaring flood, almost perpendic- 
ular like a wall of rock. At first the Indians were 
stricken dumb, and motionless with terror, but when 
they saw the waters coming, they escaped for life, 
though thirty or forty were overtaken and drowned. 
Another squaw named Isabel says that the stubs of 
trees, which are still plainly visible deep down in the 
pellucid waters, are considered by the old superstitious 
Indians to be evil spirits, the demons of the place, 
reaching up their arms, and that they fear them greatly. 



Pat Utes {near Kern River, Cal.) 

THE California big trees are sacred to the 
Monos, who call them " •woh-tvoh-nau/' 
word formed in imitation of the hoot of the 
owl. The owl is the guardian spirit and the god of 
the big trees. Bad luck comes to those who cut 
down the big trees, or shoot at an owl, or shoot in the 
presence of the owl. 

In old days the Indians tried to persuade the white 
men not to cut down the big trees. When they see the 
trees cut down they call after the white men. They 
say the owl will bring them evil. 



Pima {Arizona) 

WHEN the Hohokam dwelt on the Gila River 
and tilled their farms around the great temple 
which we call Casa Grande, there was a beau- 
tiful young woman in the pueblo who had two twin 
'tons. Their father was Cloud, and he lived far away. 
One day the boys came to their mother, as she was 
weaving mats. "Who is our father?" they asked. 
" We have no one to run to when he returns from the 
ihunt, or from war, to shout to him." 

The mother answered : " In the morning, look to- 
ward the sunrise and you will see a white Cloud stand- 
ing upright. He is your father." 

"Can we visit our father?" they asked. 
" Yes," said their mother. " You may visit him, but 
you must make the journey without stopping. First 
you will reach Wind, who is your father's eldest 
brother. Behind him you will find your father." 

The boys travelled four days and came to the house 
»f Wind. 
" Are you our father? " they asked 



"No, I am your Uncle," answered Wind. "Your 
father lives in the next house. Go on to him." 

They travelled on to Cloud. But Cloud drove them 
away. He said, " Go to your uncle Wind. He will 
tell you something." But Wind sent them back to 
Cloud again. Thus the boys were driven swty from 
each house four times. 

Then Cloud said to them, " Prove to me you arc my 
sons. If you are, you can do what I do." 

The younger boy sent chain lightning across the sky 
with sharp, crackling thunder. The elder boy sent 
the heat lightning with its distant rumble of thunder. 

"You are my children," said Cloud. "You have 
power like mine." 

But again he tested them. He took them to a house 
near by where a flood of rain had drowned the people. 
" If they are my sons," he said, " they will not be 

Then Cloud sent the rain and the storm. The water 
rose higher and higher, but the two boys were not 
harmed. The water could not drown them. Then 
Cloud took them to his home and there they stayed a 
long, long time. 

But after a long time, the boys wished to see their 
mother again. Then Cloud made them some bows and 
arrows differing from any they had ever seen, and sent 



them to their mother. He told them he would watch 
over them as they travelled but they must speak to no 
one they met on their way. 

So the boys travelled to the setting sun. First they 
met Raven. They remembered their father's com- 
mand and turned aside so as not to meet him. Then 
they met Roadrunner, and turned aside to avoid him. 
Next came Hawk and Eagle. 

Eagle said, " Let 's scare those boys." So he swooped 
down over their heads until they cried from fright. 

" We were just teasing you," said Eagle. " We will 
not do you any harm." Then Eagle flew on. 

Next they met Coyote. They tried to avoid him, but 
Coyote ran around and put himself in their way. 
Cloud was watching and he sent down thunder and 
lightning. And the boys sent out their magic thunder 
and lightning also, until Coyote was frightened and 
ran away. 

Now this happened on the mountain top, and one 
boy was standing on each side of the trail. After 
Coyote ran away, they were changed into mescal — the 
very largest mescal ever known. The place was near 
Tucson. This is the reason why mescal grows on the 
mountains, and why thunder and lightning go from 
place to place — because the children did. That is 
why it rains when we gather mescal. 

Now all the Cloud People, the Lightning Peo- 
ple, the Thunder and Rainbow Peoples fol-, 
lowed the Sla into the upper world. But all 
the people of Tinia, the middle world, did not leave 
the lower world. Only a portion were sent by the 
Spider to work for the people of the upper world. The 
Cloud People are so many that, although the demands 
of the earth people are so great, there are always many 
passing about over Tinia for pleasure. These Cloud 
People ride on wheels, small wheels being used by the 
little Cloud children and large wheels by the older 

The Cloud People keep always behind their masks. 
The shape of the mask depends upon the number of 
the people and the work being done. The Henati are 
the floating white clouds behind which the Cloud Peo- 
ple pass for pleasure. The Heash are clouds like the 

> The Indians say the Americans also ride wheels, therefore th^ 
must have known about the Cloud Pe<vle. 


plains and behind these the Cloud People are laboring 
to water the earth. Water is brought by the Cloud 
People, from the springs at the base of the mountains, 
in gourds and jugs and vases by the men, women, and 
children. They rise from the springs and pass through 
the trunk of the tree to its top, which reaches Tinia. 
They pass on to the point to be sprinkled. 

The priest of the Cloud People is above even the 
priests of the Thunder, Lightning, and Rainbow Peo- 
ples. The Cloud People have ceremonials, just like 
those of the Sia. On the altars of the Sia may be seen 
figures arranged just as the Cloud People sit in their 

When a priest of the Cloud People wishes assistance 
from the Thunder and Lightning Peoples, he notifies 
their priests, but keeps a supervision of all things him- 

Then the Lightning People shoot their arrows to 
make it rain the harder. The smaller flashes come from 
the bows of the children. The Thunder People have 
human forms, with wings of knives, and by flapping 
these win^ they make a great noise. Thus they frighten 
the Cloud and Lightning People into working the 

The Rainbow People were created to work in Tinia 
to make it more beautiful for the people of Ha-arts, 


the earth, to look upon. The elders make the beau- 
tiful rainbows, but the children assist The Sia have 
no idea of what or how these bows are made. They 
do know, however, that war heroes always travel upon 
the rainbows. 


Sia (New Mexico) 

WE, the ancient ones, ascended from the middle 
of the world below, through the door of the 
entrance to the lower world, we hold our 
, songs to the Cloud, Lightning, and Thunder Peoples as 
[ we hold our own hearts. Our medicine is precious. 
{Addressing the people of Tinia:) 
We entreat you to send your thoughts to us so that 
I We may sing your songs straight, so that they will pass 
I over the straight road to the Cloud priests that they 
' may cover the earth with water, so that she may bear 
all that is good for us. 

Lightning People, send your arrows to the middle of 

I the earth. Hear the echo! Who is it? The People 

of the Spruce of the North. All your people and your 

thoughts come to us. Who is it? People of the white 

floating Clouds. Your thoughts come to us. All your 

people and your thoughts come to us. Who is it? The 

I Lightning People. Your thoughts come to us. Who 

t is it? Cloud People at the horizon. All your people 

Laod your thoughts come to us. 



WHITE floating clouds. Xloudt, ISte dw plains, 
come and water the earth. Sun, embrace the 
earth that she may be fruitful. Moon, lion 
of the north, bear of the west, badger of the south, wolf 
of the east, eagle of the heavens, shrew of the earth, 
elder war hero, younger war hero, warriors of the six 
mountains of the world, intercede with the Cloud Peo- 
ple for us that they may water the earth. Medicine 
bowl, cloud bowl, and water vase give us your hearts, 
that the earth may be watered. I make the ancient 
road of meal that my song may pass straight over it — 
the ancient road. White shell bead woman who lives 
where the sun goes down, mother whirlwind, father 
Sussistinnako, mother Yaya, creator of good thoughts, 
yellow woman of the north, blue woman of the west, 
red woman of the south, white woman of the east, 
slightly yellow woman of the zenith, and dark woman 
of the nadir, I ask your intercession with the Cloud 




Sia (New Mexico) 

LET the white floating clouds — the clouds like the 
J plains — the lightning, thunder, rainbow, and 
cloud peoples, water the earth. Let the peo- 
ple of the white floating clouds, — the people of the 
clouds like the plains — the lightning, thunder, rain- 
bow, and cloud peoples — come and work for us, and 
water the earth. 



Zuni (Ntw M*kUo) 

AFTER long ages of wandering, the precious 
Seed-things rested orer the Middle at Zuni, 
and men turned their hearts to the cherishing 
of their corn and the Corn Maidens instead of warring 
with strange men. 

But there was complaint by the people of the cus- 
toms followed. Some said the music was not that of 
the olden time. Far better was that which of nights 
they often heard as they wandered up and down the 
river trail.' Wonderful music, as of liquid voices in 
caverns, or the echo of women's laughter in water-vases. 
And the music was timed with a deep-toned drum from 
the Mountain of Thunder. Others thought the music 
was that of the ghosts of ancient men, but it was far 
more beautiful than the music when danced the Corn 
Maidens. Others said light clouds rolled upward from 
the grotto in Thunder Mountain like to the mists that 
leave behind them the dew, but lol even as they faded 

' The mists and the dawn breeze on the river and in the grotto. 


the bright garments of the Rainbow women might be 
seen fluttering, and the broidery and paintings of these 
dancers of the mist were more beautiful than the 
costumes of the Corn Maidens. 

Then the priests of the people said, " It may well be 
Paiyatuma, the liquid voices his flute and the flutes 
of his players." 

Now when the time of ripening corn was near, the 
fathers ordered preparation for the dance of the Corn 
Maidens. They sent the two Master-Priests of the Bow 
to the grotto at Thunder Mountains, saying, " If you 
behold Paiyatuma, and his maidens, perhaps they will 
give us the help of their customs." 

Then up the river trail, the priests heard the sound 
of a drum and strains of song. It was Paiyatuma and 
his seven maidens, the Maidens of the House of Stars, 
sisters of the Corn Maidens. 

The God of Dawn and Music lifted his flute and 
took his place in the line of dancers. The drum 
sounded until the cavern shook as with thunder. The 
flutes sang and sighed as the wind in a wooded cafton 
while still the storm is distant. White mists floated 
up from the wands of the Maidens, above which flut- 
tered the butterflies of Summer-land about the dress of 
the Rainbows in the strange blue light of the night. 

Then Paiyatuma, smiling, said, " Go the way before, 


telling the fathers of our custom, and straightway we 
will follow." 

Soon the sound of music was heard, coming from up 
the river, and soon the Flute People and singers and 
maidens of the Flute dance. Up rose the fathers and 
all the watching people, greeting the God of Dawn 
with outstretched hand and offering of prayer meal. 
Then the singers took their places and sounded their 
drum, flutes, and song of clear waters, while the Maid- 
ens of the Dew danced their Flute dance. Greatly 
marvelled the people, when from the wands they bore 
forth came white clouds, and fine cool mists descended. 

Now when the dance was ended and the Dew Maid- 
ens had retired, out came the beautiful Mothers of 
Corn. And when the players of the flutes saw them, 
they were enamoured of their beauty and gazed upon 
them so intently that the Maidens let fall their hair 
and cast down their eyes. And jealous and bolder grew 
the mortal youths, and in the morning dawn, in rivalry, 
the dancers sought all too freely the presence of the 
Com Maidens, no longer holding them so precious as 
in the olden time. And the matrons, intent on the new 
dance, heeded naught else. But behold! The mists 
increased greatly, surrounding dancers and watchers 
alike, until within them, the Maidens of Corn, all in 
white garments, became invisible. Then sadly and 


noiselessly they stole in amongst the people and laid 
their corn wands down amongst the trays, and laid 
their white broidered garments thereupon, as mothers 
lay soft kilting over their babes. Then even as the mists 
became they, and with the mists drifting, fled away, to 
the far south Summer-land. 



Zuni (New Mexico) 

THEN the people in their trouble called the 
two Master- Priests and said: 
" Who, now, think ye, should journey to 
seek our precious Maidens? Bethink yel Who amongst 
the Beings is even as ye are, strong of will and good of 
eyes? There is our great elder brother and father. 
Eagle, he of the floating down and of the terraced tail- 
fan. Surely he is enduring of will and surpassing of 

" Yea. Most surely," said the fathers. " Go ye forth 
and beseech him." 

Then the two sped north to Twin Mountain, where 
in a grotto high up among the crags, with his mate and 
his young, dwelt the Eagle of the White Bonnet. 

They climbed the mountain, but behold I Only the 
eaglets were there. They screamed lustily and tried 
to hide themselves in the dark recesses. " Pull not our 
feathers, ye of hurtful touch, but wait. When we are 
older we will drop them for you even from the'clouds." 


"Hush," said the warriors. "Wait in peace. We 
seek not ye but thy father." 

Then from afar, with a frown, came old Eagle. 
" Why disturb ye my featherlings? " he cried. 

" Behold I Father and elder brother, we come seek- 
ing only the light of thy favor. Listen! " 

Then they told him of the lost Maidens of the Corn, 
and begged him to search for them. 

" Be it well with thy wishes," said Eagle. " Go ye 
before contentedly." 

So the warriors returned to the council. But Eagle 
winged his way high into the sky. High, high, he 
rose, until he circled among the clouds, small-seem- 
ing and swift, like seed-down in a whirlwind. Through 
all the heights, to the north, to the west, to the south, 
and to the east, he circled and sailed. Yet nowhere 
saw he trace of the Corn Maidens. Then he flew lower, 
returning. Before the warriors were rested, people 
heard the roar of his wings. As he alighted, the fathers 
said, " Enter thou and sit, oh brother, and say to us 
what thou hast to say." And they offered him the 
cigarette of the space relations. 

When they had puffed the smoke toward the four 
points of the compass, and Eagle had purified his 
breath with smoke, and had blown smoke over sacred 
things, he spoke. 



" Far have I journeyed, scanning all the regions. 
Neither bluebird nor woodrat can hide from my see- 
ing," he said, snapping his beak. " Neither of them, 
unless they hide under bushes. Yet I have failed to see 
anything of the Maidens ye seek for. Send for my 
younger brother, the Falcon. Strong of flight is he, 
yet not so strong as I, and nearer the ground he takes 
his way ere sunrise." 

Then the Eagle spread his wings and flew away to 
Twin Mountain. The Warrior- Priests of the Bow 
sped again fleetly over the plain to the westward for 
his younger brother, Falcon. 

Sitting on an ant hill, so the warriors found Fal- 
con. He paused as they approached, crying, " If ye 
have snare strings, I will be oflf like the flight of an 
arrow well plumed of our feathers! " 

"No," said the priests. "Thy elder brother hath 
bidden us seek thee." 

Then they told Falcon what had happened, and how 
Eagle had failed to find the Corn Maidens, so white 
and beautiful. 

" Failed 1" said Falcon. "Of course he failed. 
He climbs aloft to the clouds and thinks he can see un- 
der every bush and into every shadow, as sees the Sun- 
father who sees not with eyes. Go ye before." 

Before the Warrior-Priests had turned toward the 


town, the Falcon had spread his sharp wings and was 
skimming off over the tops of the trees and bushes as 
though verily seeking for field mice or birds' nests. 
And the Warriors returned to tell the fathers and to 
await his coming. 

But after Falcon had searched over the world, to 
the north and west, to the east and south, he too re- 
turned and was received as had been Eagle. He 
settled on the edge of a tray before the altar, as on the 
ant hill he settles to-day. When he had smoked and 
had been smoked, as had been Eagle, he told the sor- 
rowing fathers and mothers that he had looked be- 
hind every copse and cliff shadow, but of the Maidens 
be had found no trace. 

'* They are hidden more closely than ever sparrow 
hid," he said. Then he, too, flew away to his hills in 
the west. 

"Our beautiful Maiden Mothers," cried the ma- 
trons. " Lost, lost as the dead are they I " 

" Yes," said the others. " Where now shall we seek 
them? The far-seeing Eagle and the close-searching 
Falcon alike have failed to find them." 

" Stay now your feet with patience," said the fathers. 
Some of them had heard Raven, who sought food in 
the refuse and dirt at the edge of town, at daybreak. 

" Look now," they said. " There is Heavy-nose, 


whose beak never fails to And the substance of seed 
itself, however little or well hidden it be. He surely 
must know of the Corn Maidens. Let us call him." 

So the warriors went to the river side. When theyl 
found Raven, they raised their hands, all weaponless.! 

" We carry no pricking quills," they called. " Black- 
banded father, we seek your aid. Look nowl The! 
Mother-maidens of Seed whose substance is the food 
alike of thy people and our people, have fled away. 
Neither our grandfather the Eagle, nor his younger 
brother the Falcon, can trace them. We beg you to 
aid us or counsel us." 

" Kal ka!" cried the Raven. " Too hungry am I to 
go abroad fasting on business for ye. Ye are stingyl 
Here have I been since perching time, trying to find 
a throatful, but ye pick thy bones and lick thy bowls 
too clean for that, be sure." 

" Come in, then, poor grandfather. We will give 
thee food to eat. Yea, and a cigarette to smoke, with 
all the ceremony." 

" Say ye so? " said the Raven. He ruffled his col- 
lar and opened his mouth so wide with a lusty kaw- 
la-ka- that he might well have swallowed his own head. 
" Go ye before," he said, and followed them into the 
court of the dancers. 

He was not ill to look upon. Upon his shoulders 


were bands of white cotton, and his back was blue, 
gleaming like the hair of a maiden dancer in the sun- 
light. The Master-Priest greeted Raven, bidding him 
sit and smoke. 

" Ha! There is corn in this, else why the stalk of 
it?" said the Raven, when he took the cane cigarette 
of the far spaces and noticed the joint of it. Then he did 
as he had seen the Master-Priest do, only more greedily. 
He sucked in such a throatful of the smoke, fire and 
all, that it almost strangled him. He coughed and 
grew giddy, and the smoke all hot and stinging went 
through every part of him. It filled all his feathers, 
making even his brown eyes bluer and blacker, in rings. 
It is not to be wondered at, the blueness of flesh, black- 
ness of dress, and skinniness, yes, and tearfulness of eye 
which we sec in the Raven to-day. And they arc all as 
greedy of corn food as ever, for behold! No sooner 
had the old Raven recovered than he espied one of 
the ears of corn half hidden under the mantle-covers 
of the trays. He leaped from his place laughing. 
They always laugh when they find anything, these 
ravens. Then he caught up the ear of corn and made 
of? with it over the heads of the people and the tops 
of the houses, crying, 

"Ha! ha! In this wise and in no other will ye find 
thy Seed Maidens." 



But after a while he came back, saying, " A sharp 
eye have I for the flesh of the Maidens. But who 
might see their breathing- beings, ye dolts, except by 
the help of the Father of Dawn-Mist himself, whose 
breath makes breath of others seem as itself." Then 
he flew away cawing. 

Then the elders said to each other, " It is our fault, 
so how dare we prevail on our father Paiyatuma to 
aid us? He warned us of this in the old time." 

Suddenly, for the sun was rising, they heard Paiya- 
tuma in his daylight mood and transformation. 
Thoughtless and loud, uncouth in speech, he walked 
along the outskirts of the village. He joked fearlessly 
even of fearful things, for all his words and deeds were 
the reverse of his sacred being. He sat down on a 
heap of vile refuse, saying he would have a feast. 

" My poor little children," he said. But he spoke 
to aged priests and white-haired matrons. 

" Good-night to you all," he said, though it was in 
full dawning. So he perplexed them with his speeches. 

" We beseech thy favor, oh father, and thy afd, in 
finding our beautiful Maidens." So the priests 

" Oh, that is all, is it? But why find that which is 
not lost, or summon those who will not come? " 

Then he reproached them for not preparing the 


I sacred plumes, and picked up the very plumes he had 

I said were not there. 

Then the wise Pekwinna, the Speaker of the Sun, 
took two plumes and the banded wing-tips of the turkey, 
and approaching Paiyatuma stroked him with the tips 

ioi the feathers and then laid the feathers upon his 

pips. . . . 

Then Paiyatuma became aged and grand and 

Ittraight, as is a tall tree shorn by lightning. He said 

pto the father: 

' Thou are wise of thought and good of heart. 

I Therefore I will summon from Summer-land the beau- 

iliful Maidens that ye may look upon them once more 

' and make offering of plumes in sacrifice for them, but 
they are lost as dwellers amongst ye." 

Then he told them of the song lines and the sacred 

t speeches and of the offering of the sacred plume wands, 
and then turned him about and sped away so fleetly 
that none saw him. 

Beyond the first valley of the high plain to the south- 
ward Paiyatuma planted the four plume wands. First 
he planted the yellow, bending over it and watching it. 
When it ceased to flutter, the soft down on it leaned 
northward but moved not. Then he set the blue wand 
and watched it; then the white wand. The eagle down 
on them leaned to right and left and still northward, 




yet moved not. Then farther on he planted the red 
wand, and bending low, without breathing, watched it 
closely. The soft down plumes began to wave as 
though blown by the breath of some small creature. 
Backward and forward, northward and southward they 
swayed, as if in time to the breath of one resting. 

'"Tis the breath of my Maidens in Summer-land, 
for the plumes of the southland sway soft to their 
gentle breathing. So shall it ever be. When I set 
the down of my mists on the plains and scatter my 
bright beads in the northland,' summer shall go thither 
from afar, borne on the breath of the Seed Maidens. 
Where they breathe, warmth, showers, and fertility 
shall follow with the birds of Summer-land, and the 
butterflies, northward over the world." 

Then Paiyatuma arose and sped by the magic of his 
knowledge into the countries of Summer-land, — fled 
swiftly and silently as the soft breath he sought for, 
bearing his painted flute before him. And when he 
paused to rest, he played on his painted flute and the 
butterflies and birds sought him. So he sent them to 
seek the Maidens, following swiftly, and long before he 
found them he greeted them with the music of his song- 
sound, even as the People of the Seed now greet them 
in the song of the dancers. 

' Dew drops. 



When the Maidens heard his music and saw his tall 
form in their great fields of corn, they plucked ears, 
each of her own kind, and with them filled their col- 
iored trays and over all spread embroidered mantles, — 
embroidered in all the bright colors and with the creat- 
ure-songs of Summer-land. So they sallied forth to 
meet him and welcome him. Then he greeted them, 
each with the touch of his hands and the breath of his 
flute, and bade them follow him to the northland home 
of their deserted children. 

So by the magic of their knowledge they sped back 
as the stars speed over the world at night time, toward 
the home of our ancients. Only at night and dawn 
they journeyed, as the dead do, and the stars also. So 
they came at evening in the full of the last moon 
to the Place of the Middle, bearing their trays of 

Glorious was Paiyaiuma, as he walked into the courts 
of the dancers in the dusk of the evening and stood with 
folded arms at the foot of the bow-fringed ladder of 
priestly council, he and his follower Shutsukya. He 
was tall and beautiful and banded with his own mtsts, 
and carried the banded wings of the turkeys with whicb 
he had winged his flight from afar, leading the Maid- 
ens, and followed as by his own shadow by the black 
being of the com-soot, Shuisukya, who cries with the 




voice of the frost wind when the com has grown aged 
and the harvest is taken away. 

And surpassingly beautiful were the Maidens clothed 
in the white cotton and embroidered garments of Sum- 

Then after long praying and chanting by the priests, 
the fathers of the people, and those of the Seed and 
Water, and the keepers of sacred things, the Maiden- 
mother of the North advanced to the foot of the lad- 
der. She lifted from her head the beautiful tray of 
yellow com and Paiyatama took it. He pointed it to 
the regions, each in turn, and the Priest of the North 
came and received the tray of sacred seed. 

Then the Maiden of the West advanced and gave 
up her tray of blue com. So each in turn the Maid- 
ens gave up their trays of precious seed. The Maiden 
of the South, the red seed; the Maiden of the East, 
the white seed; then the Maiden with the black seed, 
and lastly, the tray of all-color seed which the Priestess 
of Seed-and-All herself received. 

And now, behold I The Maidens stood as before, 
she of the North at the northern end, but with her 
face soudiward far looking; she of the West, next, 
and lo I so all of them, with the seventh and last, look- 
ing 80uf}iward. And standing thus, the darkness of the 
night fell around them. As shadows in deep night, so 


these Maidens of the Seed of Corn, the beloved and 
beautiful, were seen no more of men. And Paiyatuma 
stood alone, for Shutsukya walked now behind the 
Maidens, whistling shrilly, as the frost wind whistles 
when the com is gathered away, among the lone canes 
and dry leaves of a gleaned field. 



Navajo (New Mexico) 

HASJELTI was the son of the white corn, and 
Hostjoghon the son of the yellow corn. They 
were born on the mountains where the fogs 
meet. These two became the great song-makers of the 

To the mountain where they were born {Henry 
Mountain, Utah), they gave two songs and two pray- 
ers. Then they went to Sierra Blanca (Colorado) and 
made two songs and prayers and dressed the mountain 
in clothing of white shell with two eagle plumes upon 
its head. They visited San Mateo Mountain (New 
Mexico) and gave to it two songs and prayers, and 
dressed it in turquoise, even to leggings and moccasins, 
and placed two eagle plumes upon its head. Then th^ 
went to San Francisco Mountain (Arizona) and made 
two songs and prayers and dressed that mountain in 
abalone shells with two eagle plumes upon its head. 
They then visited Ute Mountain and gave to it two 
songs and prayers and dressed it in black beads. Then 
they returned to their own mountain where the fogs 
meet and said, " We two have made all these songs." 



Other brothers were born of the white corn and yel- 
low corn, and two brothers were placed on each moun- 
tain. They are the spirits of the mountains and to 
them the clouds come first. All the brothers together 
made game, the deer and elk and buffalo, and so game 
was created. 

Navajos pray for rain and snow to Hasjeiti and Host- 
joghon. They stand upon the mountain tops and call 
the clouds to gather around them. Hasjeiti prays to 
the sun, for the Navajos. 

" Father, give me the light of your mind that my 
mind may be strong. Give me your strength, that my 
arm may be strong. Give me your rays, that corn and 
other vegetation may grow." 

The most important prayers are addressed to Has- 
jeiti and the most valuable gifts made to him. He 
talks to the Navajos through the birds, and for this 
reason the choicest feathers and plumes are placed in 
the cigarettes and attached to the prayer sticks offered 
to him. 



Navajo (New Mexico) 

A MAN sat thinking. "l€t me see. My songs 
are too short. I want more songs. Where 
shall I go to find them? " 

Hasjelti appeared and perceiving his thoughts, said, 
" I know where you can get more songs." 

*' Well, I want to get more. So I will follow you." 

They went to a certain point in a box cafion in the 
Big Colorado River and here they found four gods, the 
Hostjobokon, at work, hewing cottonwood logs. 

Hasjelti said, " This will not do. Cottonwood be- 
comes water-soaked. You must use pine instead of 

The Hostjobokon began boring the pine with flint, 
but Hasjelti said, "That is slow work." He com- 
manded a whirlwind to hollow the log. A cross, join- 
ing at the exact middle of each log, a solid one and 
the hollow one, was formed. The arms of the cross 
were equal. 

The song-hunter entered the hollow log and Hasjelti 

closed the end with a cloud so that water would not 



enter when the logs were launched upon the great 
waters. The logs floated off. The Hostjobokon, ac- 
companied by their wives, rode upon the logs, one 
couple silting upon each arm. Hasjelti, Hostjoghon, 
and the two Naaskiddi walked upon the banks to keep 
the logs off shore. Hasjelti carried a squirrel skin 
filled with tobacco, with which to supply the gods on 
their journey. Hostjoghon carried a staff ornamented 
with eagle and turkey plumes and a gaming ring with 
two humming birds tied to it with white cotton cord. 
The two Naaskiddi carried staffs of lightning. The 
Naaskiddi had clouds upon their backs in which the 
seeds of all corn and grasses were carried. 

After floating a long distance down the river, they 
came to waters that had a shore on one side only. Here 
they landed. Here they found a people like themselves. 
When these people learned of the Song-hunter, they 
gave him many songs and they painted pictures on a 
cotton blanket and said, 

" These pictures must go with the songs. If we give 
this blanket to you, you will lose it. We will give you 
white earth and black coals which you will grind to- 
gether to make black paint, and we will give you white 
sand, yellow sand, and red sand. For the blue paint 
you will take white sand and black coals with a very 
little red and yellow sand. These will give you blue." 



And so the Navajo people make blue, even to this 

The Song-hunter remained with these people until 
the corn was ripe. There he learned to eat corn and 
he carried some back with him to the Navajos, who 
had not seen com before, and he taught them how to 
raise it and how to eat it. 

When he wished to return tiume, the logs would not 
float upstream. Four sunbeams attached themselves 
to the logs, one to each cross arm, and so drew the Song- 
hunter back to the box caflon from which he had 
started. When he reached that point, he separated the 
logs. He placed the end of the solid log into the hol- 
low end of the other and planted this great pole in the 
river. It may be seen there to-day by the venturesome. 
In early days many went there to pray and make 




(Explanatory of frontispiece) 

THE black cross bars denote pine logs; the 
white lines the froth of the water; the yellow, 
vegetable debris gathered by the logs; the blue 
and red lines, sunbeams. The blue spot in the centre 
of the cross denotes water. There are four Hostjo- 
bokon, with their wives, the Hostjoboard. Each couple 
sits upon one of the cross arms of the logs. The gods 
carry in their right hands a rattle, and in their left 
sprigs of pifion; the goddesses carry piiion sprigs in 
both hands. 

Hasjclti is to the east of the painting. He carries a 
squirrel skin filled with tobacco. His shirt is white 
cotton and very clastic. The leggings are of white deer- 
skin, fringed, and his head is ornamented with an 
eagle's tail ; at the tip of each plume there is a f!uffy 
feather from the breast of the eagle. The projection 
on the right of tlie throat is a fox skin. 

Hostjoghon is at the west. His shirt is invisible, the 
dark being the dark of the body. His staf! is colored 



black from a charred plant. Two strips of beaver skin 
tipped with six quills of the porcupine are attached to 
the right of the throat. The four colored stars on the 
body are bead ornaments. The top of the staff is or- 
namented with a turkey's tail. Eagle and turkey 
plumes are alternately attached to the staff. 

The Naaskiddi are north and south of the paintin] 
They carry staffs of lightning ornamented with eagle 
plumes and sunbeams. Their bodies are nude except 
the loin skirt. The hunch upon the back is a black 
cloud and the three groups of white lines indicate 
com and other seeds. Five eagle plumes are attached 
to the cloud-back, since eagles live among the clouds. 
The body is surrounded by sunlight. The lines of blue 
and red which border the cloud-back denote sunbeams 
penetrating storm clouds. The black circle zig-zagged 
with white around the head is a cloud basket filled with 
corn and seeds of grass. On each side of the head are 
five feathers of the red-shafted flicker. 

The Rainbow goddess, upon which these gods often 
travel, partly encircles and completes the picture. 

These sand pictures are drawn upon common yel- 
low sand, brought in blankets and laid in squares about 
three inches thick and four feet in diameter. The col- 
ors used in decoration were yellow, red, and white, se- 
cured from sand stones, black from charcoal, and a 


grayish blue made from white sand and charcoal mixed 
with a very small quantity of yellow and red sands. 

(From eighth annual report of the Bureau of 
Ethnology, abridged from description of James 




Zuni (New Mexico) 

NOW K-yak-lu, the all-hearing and wise of 
speech, all alone had been journeying afar in 
the North Land of cold and white loneliness. 
He was lost, for the world in which he wandered was 
buried in the snow which lies spread there forever. So 
cold he was that his face became wan and white from 
the frozen mists of his own breath, white as become all 
creatures who dwell there. So cold at night and dreary 
of heart, so lost by day and blinded by the light was he 
that he wept, and died of heart and became transformed 
as are the gods. Yet his lips called continually and his 
voice grew shrill and dry-sounding, like the voice of 
far-flying water-fowl. As he cried, wandering blindly, 
the water birds flocking around him peered curiously 
at him, calling meanwhile to their comrades. But wise 
though he was of all speeches, and their meanings plain 
to him, yet none told him the way to his country and 
Now the Duck heard his cry and it was like her own. 



She was of all regions the traveller and searcher, know- 
ing all the ways, whether above or below the waters, 
whether in the north, the west, the south, or the east, 
and was the most knowing of all creatures. Thus the 
wisdom of the one understood the knowledge of the 

And the All-wise cried to her, " The mountains are 
white and the valleys; all plains are like others in 
whiteness, and even the light of our Father the Sun, 
makes all ways more hidden of whitenessi In bright- 
ness my eyes see but darkness." 
The Duck answered: 
I "Think no longer sad thoughts. Thou hearest all 
as I see all. Give me tinkling shells from thy girdle 
and place them on my neck and in my beak. I may 
guide thee with my seeing if thou hear and follow my 
trail. Well I know the way to thy country. Each 
year I lead thither the wild geese and the cranes who 
flee there as winter follows." 

So the All-wise placed his talking shells on the neck 
of the Duck, and the singing shells in her beak, and 
though painfully and lamely, yet he followed the sound 
she made with the shells. From place to place with 
swift flight she sped, then awaiting him, ducking her 
[ head that the shells might call loudly. By and by they 

L came to the country of thick rains and mists on the 
I 141 



borders of the Snow World, and passed from water to 
water, until wider water lay in their path. In rain the 
Duck called and jingled the shells from the midst of 
the waters. K-yak-Iu could neither swim nor fly as 
could the Duck. 

Now the Rainbow-worm was near in that land of 
mists and waters and he hea--'^ 'he sound of the sacred 

" These be my grandchildren," he said, and called, 
"Why mourn ye? Give me plumes of the spaces. I 
will bear you on my shoulders." 

Then the All-wise took two of the lightest plume- 
wands, and the Duck her two strong feathers. And he 
fastened them together and breathed on them while the 
Rainbow-worm drew near. The Rainbow unbent him- 
self that K-yak-lu might mount, then he arched himself 
high among the clouds. Like an arrow he straight- 
ened himself forward, and followed until his face 
looked into the Lake of the Ancients. And there the 
All-wise descended, and sat there alone, in the plain 
beyond the mountains. The Duck had spread her 
wings in flight to the south to take counsel of the gods. 

Then the Duck, even as the gods had directed, pre- 
pared a litter of poles and reeds, and before the morn- 
ing came, with the Utter they went, singing a quaint 
and pleasant song, down the northern plain. And when 


' found the All-wise, he looked upon them in the 

Ittarlight and wept. But the father of the gods stood 

over him and chanted the sad dirge rite. Then 

K-yak-Iu sat down in the great soft litter they bore 

for him. 

They lifted it upon their shoulders, bearing it lightly, 
singing loudly as they went, to the shores of the deep 
black lake, where gleamed from the middle the lights 
of the dead. 

Out over the magic ladder of rushes and canes which 

I reared itself over the water, they bore him. And 

IK-yak-lu, scattering sacred prayer meal before him, 

Mtepped down the way, slowly, like a blind man. No 

sooner had he taken four steps than the ladder lowered 

into the deep. And the All-wise entered the council 

room of the gods. 

The gods sent out their runners, to summon all be- 
ings, and called in dancers for the Dance of Good. 
And with these came the little ones who had sunk be- 
Lneath the waters, well and beautiful and all seemingly 
ad in cotton mantles and precious neck jewels. 



Navajo (New Mexico) 

THE Tolchini, a clan of the Navajos, lived at 
Wind Mountains. .„ ; of them used to take 
long visits into the country. His brothers 
thought he was crazy. The first time on his return, 
he brought with him a pine bough; the second time, 
corn. Each time he returned he brought something 
new and had a strange story to tell. His brothers said: 
" He is crazy. He does not know what he is talking 

Now the Tolchini left Wind Mountains and went to 
a rocky foothill east of the San Mateo Mountain. They 
had nothing to eat but seed grass. The eldest brother 
said, '* Let us go hunting," but they told the youngest 
brother not to leave camp. But five days and five 
nights passed, and there was no word. So he followed 

After a day's travel he camped near a caflon, in a 
cavelike place. There was much snow but no water 
so he made a fire and heated a rock, and made a hole 
in the ground. The hot rock heated the snow and gave 





him water to drink. Just then he heard a tumult over 
his head, like people passing. He went out to see what 
made the noise and saw many crows crossing back and 
forth over the canon. This was the home of the crow, 
but there were other feathered people there, and the 

laparral cock. He saw many fires made by the crows 
'on each side of the caflon. Two crows flew down near 
him and the youth listened to hear what was the 

The two crows cried out, " Somebody says. Some- 

idy says." 

The youth did not know what to make of this. 

A crow on the opposite side called out, "What is 
the matter? Tell us! Tell us I What is wrong? " 

The first two cried out, *' Two of us got killed. We 
met two of our men who told us." 

Then they told the crows how two men who were 
out hunting killed twelve deer, and a party of the Crow 
People went to the deer after they were shot. They 
said, " Two of us who went after the blood of the deer 
were shot." 

The crows on the other side of the cation called, 
"Which men got killed?" 

"The chaparral cock, who sat on the horn of the 
deer, and the crow who sat on its backbone." 

The others called out, " We are not surprised they 


were killed. That is what we tell you all the time. If 
you go after dead deer you must expect to be killed." 

" We will not think of them longer," so the two 
crows replied. "They are dead and gone. We arc 
talking of things of long ago." 

But the youth sat quietly below and listened to ev- 
erything that was said. 

After a while the crows on the other side of the 
cafion made a great noise and began to dance. They 
had many songs at that time. The youth listened all 
the time. After the dance a great fire was made and 
he could see black objects moving, but he could not 
distinguish any people. He recognized the voice of 
Hasjelti. He remembered everything in his heart He 
even remembered the words of the songs that contin- 
ued all night. He remembered every word of every 
song. He said to himself, " I will listen until day- 

The Crow People did not remain on the side of the 
cafion where the fires were first built. They crossed 
and rccrossed the cafion in their dance. They danced 
back and forth until daylight. Then all the crows and 
the other birds flew away to the west. All that was 
left was the fires and the smoke. 

Then the youth started for his brothers' camp. They 

saw him coming. They said, " He will have lots of 



ories to tell. He will say he saw something no one 
rver saw." 

But the brother-in-law who was with them said, 
' Let him alone. When he comes into camp he will 
tell us all. I believe these things do happen for he 
icould not make up these things all the time." 

Now the camp was surrounded by piflon brush and 

a large fire was burning in the centre. There was 

much meat roasting over the fire. When the youth 

breached the camp, he raked over the coals and said. 

' I feel cold." 

Brother-in-law replied, " It is cold. When people 
camp together, they tell stories to one another in the 
morning. We have told ours, now you tell yours." 

The youth said, "Where I stopped last night was 
the worst camp I ever had." The brothers paid no 
attention but the brother-in-law listened. 

The youth said, " I never heard such a noise." Then 
he told his story. Brother-in-law asked what kind of 
people made the noise. 

The youth said, " I do not know. They were strange 
people to me, but they danced all night back and forth 
across the caflon and I heard them say my brothers 
killed twelve deer and afterwards killed two of their 
people who went for the blood of the deer. I heard 
them say, " ' That is what must be expected. If you 
Lgo to such places, you must expect to be killed.* " 



The elder brother began thinking. He said, *' How 
many deer did you say were killed? " 

" Twelve." 

Elder brother said, " I never believed you before, 
but this story I do believe. How do you find out all 
these things? What is the matter with you that you 
know them? " 

The boy said, " I do not know. They come inta 
my mind and to my eyes." 

Then they started homeward, carrying the meat The 
youth helped them. 

As they were descending a mesa, they sat down on 
the edge to rest. Far down the mesa were four moun- 
tain sheep. The brothers told the youth to kill one. 

The youth hid in the sage brush and when the sheep 
came directly toward him, he aimed his arrow at them. 
But his arm stiffened and became dead. The sheep 
passed by. 

He headed them off again by hiding in the stalks of 
a large yucca. The sheep passed within five steps of 
him, but again his arm stiffened as he drew the bow. 

He followed the sheep and got ahead of them and 
hid behind a birch tree in bloom. He had his bow 
ready, but as they neared him they became gods. The 
first was Hasjciti, the second was Hostjoghon, the third 
was Naaskiddi, and the fourth Hadatchishi. Then the 
youth fell senseless to the ground. 



The four gods stood one on each side of him, each 
with a rattle. They traced with their rattles in the 
sand the figure of a man, drawing lines at his head and 
feet. Then the youth recovered and the gods again 
became sheep. They said, '* Why did you try to shoot 
us? You see you are one of us." For the youth had 
become a sheep. 

The gods said, " There is to be a dance, far off to 
the north beyond the Ute Mountain. We want you to 
go with us. We will dress you like ourselves and teach 
you to dance. Then we will wander over the world." 

Now the brothers watched from the top of the mesa 
but they could not see what the trouble was. They saw 
the youth lying on the ground, but when they reached 
the place, all the sheep were gone. They began cry- 
ing, saying, " For a long time we would not believe 
him, and now he has gone off with the sheep." 

They tried to head off the sheep, but failed. They 
said, " If we had believed him, he would not have 
gone off with the sheep. But perhaps some day we 
will see him again." 

At the dance, the five sheep found seven others. This 
made their number twelve. They journeyed all around 
the world. All people let them see their dances and 
learn their songs. Then the eleven talked together 
uid saidf 



" There is no use keeping this youth with us longer. 
He has learned everything. He may as well go back 
to his people and teach them to do as we do." 

So the youth was taught to have twelve in the dance, 
six gods and six goddesses, with Hasjelti to lead them. 
He was told to have his people make masks to repre- 
sent the gods. 

So the youth returned to i..^ jrothers, carrying with 
him all songs, all medicines, and clothing. 



Patwin (Sacramento Valley, Cal.) 

BEFORE anything was created at all, Old Frog 
and Old Badger lived alone together. Old 
Badger wanted to drink, so Old Frog gnawed 
into a tree, drew out all the sap and put it in a hollow 
place. Then he created Little Frogs to help him, and 
working together they dug out the lake. 

Then Old Frog made the little flat whitefish. Some 
of them lived in the lake, hut others swam down Cache 
Creek, and turned into the salmon, pike, and sturgeon 
which swim in the Sacramento. 



Patwin {Sacramento Valley, Cal.) 

LONG ago a man loved two women and wished to 
J marry both of them. But the women were 
magpies and they laughed at him. Therefore 
the man went to the north, and made for himself a 
tule boat. Then he set the world on fire, and himself 
escaped to sea in his boat 

But the fire burned with terrible spefd. It ate its 
way into the south. It licked up all things on earth, 
men, trees, rocks, animals, water, and even the ground 

Now Old Coyote saw the burning and the smoke 
from his place far in the south, and he ran with all his 
might to put it out. He put two little boys in a sack 
and ran north like the wind. He took honey-dew into 
his mouth, chewed it up, spat on the fire, and so put it 
out. Now the fire was out, but there was no water and 
Coyote was thirsty. So he took Indian sugar again, 
chewed it up, dug a hole in the bottom of the creek, 
covered up the sugar in it, and it turned to water and 
filled the creek. So the earth had water again. 


But the two little boys cried because they were lone- 
some, for there was nobody left on earth. Then Coyote 
made a sweat house, and split a number of sticks, and 
laid them in the sweat house over night. In the morn- 
ing they had all turned into men and women. 




(Totems of summer and winter) 

Zuni (New Mexico) 

THE priest who was named Yanauluha carried j 
ever in his hand a staff which now in the day- 
light was plumed and covered with feathers — 
yellow, blue-green, red, white, black, and varied. At- 
tached to it were shells, which made a song-like tinkle. 
The people when they saw it stretched out their hands 
and asked many questions. 

Then the priest balanced it in his hand, and struck 
with it a hard place, and blew upon it. Amid the 
plumes appeared four round things — mere eggs they 
were. Two were blue like the sky and two dun-red 
like the flesh of the Earth-mother. 

Then the people asked many questions. 

*' These," said the priests, " are the seed of living 
beings. Choose which ye will follow. From two eggs 
shall come beings of beautiful plumage, colored like 
the grass and fruits of summer. Where they fly and 
ye follow, shall always be summer. Without toil, fields 
of food shall flourish. And from the other two eggs 
shall come evil beings, piebald, with white, without 


I colors. And where these two shall fly and ye shall fol- 
low, winter strives with summer. Only by labor shall 
the fields yield fruit, and your children and theirs shall 
strive for the fruits. Which do ye choose?" 

" The blue! The bluel " cried the people, and those 
who were strongest carried off the blue eggs, leaving 
the red eggs to those who waited. They laid the blue 
eggs with much gentleness in soft sand on the sunny 

I side of a hill, watching day by day. They were pre- 
cious of color; surely they would be the precious birds 
of the Summer-land. Then the eggs cracked and the 
birds came out, with open eyes and pin feathers under 
their skins. 

" We chose wisely," said the people. " Yellow and 

[ blue, red and green, are their dresses, even seen through 
their skins." So they fed them freely of all the foods 
which men favor. Thus they taught them to eat all 
desirable food. But when the feathers appeared, they 

I were black with white bandings. They were ravens. 

I And they flew away croaking hoarse laughs and mock- 
ing our fathers. 

But the other eggs became beautiful macaws, and 
were wafted by a toss of the priest's wand to the far- 
away Summer-land. 

So those who had chosen the raven, became the Ra- 
ven People. They were the Winter People and they 


were many and strong. But those who had chosen the 
macaw, became the Macaw People. They were the 
Summer People, and few in number, and less strong, 
but they were wiser because they were more deliberate. 
The priest Yanauluha, being wise, became their father, 
even as the Sun-father is among the little moons of the 
sky. He and his sisters were the ancestors of the priest- 
keepers of things. 




Sia {New Mexico) 

ONE day Coyote was passing about when he saw 
Hare sitting before his house. Coyote thought, 
" In a minute I will catch you," and he sprang 
and caught Hare. 

Hare cried, " Man Coyote, do not eat me. Wait 
just a minute; I have something to tell you — some- 
thing you will be glad to hear — something you must 

" Well," said Coyote, " I will wait." 

'* Let me sit at the entrance of my house," said Hare. 
" Then I can talk to you." 

Coyote allowed Hare to take his seat at the entrance. 

Hare said, "What are you thinking of. Coyote?" 

" Nothing," said Coyote. 

"Listen, then," said Hare. " I am a hare and I am 
very much afraid of people. When they come carry- 
ing arrows, I am afraid of them. When they see me 
they aim their arrows at me and I am afraid, and oh! 
how I tremble! " 

Hare began trembling violently until he saw Coyote 


a little off his guard, then he began to run. It took 
Coyote a minute to think and then he ran after Hare, 
but always a little behind. Hare raced away and soon 
entered a house, just in time to escape Coyote. Coyote 
tried to enter the house but found it was hard stone. 
He became very angry. 

Coyote cried, " I was V"' "tupidl Why did I allow 
this Hare to fool me? I must have him. But this 
house is so strong, how can I open it?" 

Coyote began to work, but after a while he said to 
himself, " The stone is so strong I cannot open it" 

Presently Hare called, " Man Coyote, how are yon 
going to kill me? " 

" I know how," said Coyote. " I will kill you with 

"Where is the wood?" asked Hare, for he knew 
there was no wood at his house. 

" I will bring grass," said Coyote, " and set fire to it 
The fire will enter your house and kill you." 

" Oh," said Hare, *' but the grass is mine. It is my 
food ; it will not kill me. It is my friend. The grass 
will not kill me." 

" Then," said Coyote, " I will bring all the trees of 
the wood and set fire to them." 

" All the trees know me," said Hare. " They are 
my friends. They will not kill me. They are my food." 

PiMis Tree in the Granh Canon 


Coyote thought a minute. Then he said, " I will 
bring the gum of the piiion and set fire to that." 

*Hare said, " Now I am afraid. I do not eat that. 
is not my friend." 
Coyote rejoiced that he had thought of a plan for 
getting the hare. He hurried and brought all the gum 
he could carry and placed it at the door of Hare's 
house and set fire to it. In a short time the gum boiled 
like hot grease, and Hare cried, 

" Now I know I shall diel What shall I do? " Yet 
all the time he knew what he would do. 

But Coyote was glad Hare was afraid. After a 
while Hare called, "The fire is entering my house," 
and Coyote answered, " Blow it out I " 

But Coyote drew nearer and blew with all his might 
to blow the flame into Hare's house 

Hare cried, "You are so close you are blowing the 
jre on me and I will soon be burned." 

Coyote was so happy that he drew closer and blew 

terder, and drew still closer so that his face was very 

close to Hare's face. Then Hare suddenly threw the 

boiling gum into Coyote's face and escaped from his 


It took Coyote a long time to remove the gum from 
I face, and he felt very sorrowful. He said, " I am 
, very stupid." 



Pima {Arizona) 

ONCE upon a time, long ago, Coyote was sleep- 
ing so soundly that a ^^.-ey of quails came along 
and cut pieces of fat meat out of his flesh with- 
out arousing him. Then they went on. After they 
had camped for the evening, and were cooking the 
meat. Coyote came up the trail. 

Coyote said, " Where did you get that nice, fat 
meat? Give me some." 

Quails gave him all he wanted. Then he went far- 
ther up the trail. After he had gone a little way, 
Quails called to him, 

" Coyote, you were eating your own flesh." 

Coyote said, " What did you say? " 

Quails said, " Oh, nothing. We heard something 
calling behind the mountains." 

Soon the quails called again : *' Coyote, you ate your 
own meat." 

" What did you say? " 

" Oh, nothing. We heard somebody pounding his 






So Coyote went on. But at last he began to feel 
'here he had been cut. Then he knew what the quails 
meant. He turned back down the trail and told Quails 
he would eat them up. He began to chase them. The 
quails flew above ground and Coyote ran about under 
them. At last they got tired, but Coyote did not be- 
cause he was so angry. 

By and by Quails came to a hole, and one of the 
kcencst-witted picked up a piece of prickly cholla cac- 
tus and pushed it into the hole; then they all ran in 
after it. But Coyote dug out the hole and reached 
them. When he came to the first quail he said, 

*' Was it you who told me I ate my own flesh? " 

Quail said, " No." 

So Coyote let him go and he flew away. When Coy- 
ote came to the second quail, he asked the same ques- 
tion. Quail said, " No," and then flew away. So 
Coyote asked every quail, until the last quail was gone, 
and then he came to the cactus branch. Now the 
prickly cactus branch was so covered with feathers that 
it looked just like a quail. Coyote asked it the same 
question, but the cacms branch did not answer. Then 
Coyote said, 

" I know it was you because you do not answer." 

So Coyote bit very hard into the hard, prickly 
branch, and it killed him. 



Sia {New Mexico) 

ANOTHER day when he was travelling around, 
Coyote met a deer wirn two fawns. The fawns 
were beautifully spotted, and he said to the deer, 

" How did you paint your children? They are so 
beautiful 1 " 

Deer replied, " I painted them with fire from the 

*' And how did you do the work? " asked Coyote. 

" I put my children into a cave and built a fire of 
cedar in front of it. Every time a spark flew from the 
fire it struck my children, making a beautiful spot." 

" Oh," said Coyote, " I will do the same thing. 
Then I will make my children beautiful." 

He hurried to his house and put his children in a 
cave. Then he built a fire of cedar in front of it and 
stood off to watch the fire. But the children cried be- 
cause the fire was very hot. Coyote kept calling to 
them not to cry because they would be beautiful like 
the deer. After a time the crying ceased and Coyote 
was pleased. But when the fire died down-, he found 


they were burned to death. Coyote expected to find 
them beautiful, but instead they were dead. 

Then he was enraged with the deer and ran away to 
hunt her, but he could not find her anywhere. He was 
much distressed to think the deer had fooled him so 



Pima (Arizona) 

ALONG time ago, the bluebird was a very ugly 
color. But Bluebird knew of a lake where no 
river flowed in or out, and he bathed in diis fottr 
times every morning for four mornings. Every morn- 
ing he sang a magic song: 

" There 's a blue water. It lies there. 
I went in. 
I am all blue." 

On die fourth morning Bluebird shed all his feath- 
ers and came out of the lake just in his skin. But die 
next morning when he came out of the lake he was cov- 
ered with blue feathers. 

Now all this while Coyote had been watching Blue- 
bird. He wanted to jump in and get him to eat, but 
he was afraid of the water. But on that last morning 
Coyote said, 

" How is it you have lost all your ugly color, and 
now you are blue and gay and beautiful? You are 
more beautiful than anything that flies in the air. I 
want to be blue, too." Now Coyote at that time was 
a bright green. 




"— 1 









1 i 

1 -^ 



•"5^ y\3BH 










Cmttiy of SmilhioniM Indifmion 

Vases with Figures of Butterflies, from Sikyatki 


" I only went in four times on four mornings," said 
Bluebird. He taught Coyote the magic song, and he 

■went in four times, and the fifth time he came out as 
blue as the little bird. 

Then Coyote was very, very proud because he was a 
J>lue coyote. He was so proud that as he walked along 

Ihe looked around on every side to see if anybody was 
looking at him now that he was a blue coyote and so 
beautiful. He looked to see if his shadow was blue, 

I too. But Coyote was so busy watching to see if others 

' were noticing him that he did not watch the trail. By 
and by he ran into a stump so hard that it threw him 
down in the dirt and he was covered with dust all over. 
You may know this is true because even to-day coyotes 
are the color of dirt. 




Pima {Arizona) 

WHEN Coyote was tra ":lling about one day, he 
saw a small bird. The bird was hopping 
about contentedly and Coyote thought, 

" What a beautiful bird. It moves about so grace- 

He drew nearer to the bird and asked, " What beau- 
tiful things arc you working with? " but the bird could 
not understand Coyote. After a while the bird took out 
his two eyes and threw them straight up into the air, 
like two stones. It looked upward but had no eyes. 
Then the bird said, 

" Come, my eyes. Come quickly, down into my 
head." The eyes fell down into the bird's head, just 
where they belonged, but were much brighter than 

Coyote thought he could brighten his eyes. He asked 
the bird to take out his eyes. The bird took out Coy- 
ote's eyes, held them for a moment in his hands, and 
threw them straight up into the air. Coyote looked up 
and called, 


" Come back, my eyes. Come quickly." They at 

I once fell back into his head and were much brighter 

than before. Coyote wanted to try it again, but the 

bird did not wish to. But Coyote persisted. Then the 

I bird said, 

" Why should I work for you, Coyote? No, I will 
I work no more for you." But Coyote still persisted, and 
the bird took out his eyes and threw them up. Coyote 
I cried, 

" Come, my eyes, come back to me." 
But his eyes continued to rise into the air, and the 
bird began to go away. Coyote began to weep. But 
the bird was annoyed, and called back, 

"Go away now. I am tired of you. Go away and 
get other eyes." 

But Coyote refused to go and entreated the bird to 

I find eyes for him. At last the bird gathered gum from 

I a pit^on tree and rolled it between his hands and put 

it in Coyote's eye holes, so that he could see. But his 

I eyes had been black and very bright. His new eyes 

were yellow. 

" Now," said the bird, " go away. You cannot stay 
here any longer." 




Pima (Arizona) 

ONCE upon a time, ^ er rose very high and 
spread all over the land. An Indian woman 
was going along the trail by the river side with 
a basket of tortillas on her head, but she was wading 
in water up to her waist. Now Coyote was afraid of 
the water, so he had climbed into a cottonwood 
tree. When the woman came up the trail, Coyote 

'* Oh, come to this tree and give me some of those 
nice tortillas." 

The woman said, " No. I can't give them to you ; 
they are for somebody else." 

" If you do not come here I will shoot you," said 
Coyote, and the woman really thought he had a bow. 
So she came to the tree and said, " You must come down 
and get them. I can't climb trees." 

Coyote came down as far as he dared, but he was 
afraid of the deep water. The woman laughed at him. 
She said, " Just see how shallow it is. It 's only up to 


my ankles." But she was standing on a big stump. 
Coyote looked at the water. It seemed shallow and 
safe enough, so he jumped. But the water was deep 
and he was drowned. Then the woman went on up the 




Sta {New Mexico) 

COYOTE travelled a long distance and in the 
middle of the day it was very hot. He sal 
down and rested, am. ught, as he looked up 
to Tinia, " How I wish the Cloud People would 
freshen my path and make it cool." 

In just a little while the Cloud People gathered over 
the trail Coyote was following and he was glad that 
his path was to be cool and shady. 

After he travelled some distance further, he sat down 
again and looking upward said, " I wish the Cloud 
People would send rain. My road would be cooler 
and fresher." In a little while a shower came and 
Coyote was contented. 

But in a short time he again sat down and wished 
that the road could be very moist, that it would be 
fresh to his feet, and almost immediately the trail was 
as wet as though a river had passed over it. Again 
Coyote was contented. 

But after a while he took his seat again. He said 
to himself, '* I guess I will talk again to the Cloud 
People." Then he looked up and said to them, 


" I wish for water over my road — water to my el- 
I bows, that I may travel on my hands and feet in the 
f cool waters; then I shall be refreshed and happy." 

In a short time his road was covered with water, and 
he moved on. But again he wished for something 
I more, and said to the Cloud People, 

" I wish much for water to my shoulders. Then I 
will be happy and contented." 

In a moment the waters arose as he wished, yet after 
a while he looked up and said, " If you will only give 
me water so high that my eyes, nose, mouth and ears 
are above it, I will be happy. Then indeed my road will 
be cool." 

But even this did not satisfy him, and after travelling 
I 8 while longer he implored the Cloud People to give 
him a river that he might float over the trail, and im- 
mediately a river appeared and Coyote floated down 
stream. Now he had been high in the mountains and 
wished to go to Hare Land. 

After floating a long distance, he at last came to 
Hare Land and saw many Hares a little distance off, 
on both sides of the river. Coyote lay down in the mud 
as though he were dead and listened. Soon a woman 
ka-wate (mephitis) came along with a vase and a gourd 
for water. 

She said, " Here is a dead coyote. Where did he 



come from? I guess from the mountains above, 
guess he fell into the water and died." 

Coyote looked up and said, " Come here, woman." I 

She said, "What do you want?" 

Coyote said, " I know the Hares and other smaU.I 
animals well. In a little while they will come 1 
and think I am dead and he happy. What do_yoj 
think about it? '* 

Ka-wate said, " I have no thoughts at all." 

So Coyote explained his plan. . . . 

So Coyote lay as dead, and all the Hares and small 
animals saw him lying In the river, and rejoiced that 
he was dead. The Hares decided to go in a body and 
see the dead Coyote. Rejoicing over his death, they 
struck him with their hands and kicked him. There 
were crowds of Hares and they decided to have a great 
dance. Now and then a dancing Hare would stamp 
upon Coyote who lay as if dead. During the dance 
the Hares clapped their hands over their mouth and 
gave a whoop like a war-whoop. 

Then Coyote rose quickly and took two clubs which 
the ka-wate had given him, and together they killed all 
of the Hares. There was a great number and they were 
piled up like stones. 

Coyote said, "Where shall I find fire to cook the 
hares? Ah," he said, pointing across to a high rock, 


* that rock gives good shade and it is cool. I will 

find fire and cook my meat in the shade of that rock." 

So they carried all the hares to that point and Coy- 

I ote made a large fire and threw them into it. When 

I he had done this he was very warm and tired. He 

I lay down close to the rock in the shade. 

After a while he said to Ka-wate, "We will run a 
|>race. The one who wins will have all the hares." 
She said, " How could I beat you? Your feet are 
so much larger than mine." 

Coyote said, " I will allow you the start of me." He 

made a torch of the inner shreds of cedar bark and 

wrapped it with yucca thread and lighted it. Then 

bhe tied this torch to the end of his tail. He did this 

J,lo see that the ka-wate did not escape him. 

Ka-wate started first, but when out of sight of Coy- 
lots, she slipped into the house of Badger. Then Coyote 
I started with the fire attached to his tail. Wherever he 
Itouchcd the grass, he set fire to it. But Ka-wate hur- 
r tied back to the rock, carried all the hares on top ex- 
cept four tiny ones, and then climbed up on the rock. 
Coyote was surprised not to overtake her. He said, 
["She must be very quick. How could she run so 
I fast?" Then he returned to the rock, but did not sec 

He was tired and sat down in the shade of the rock. 


"Why doesn't she come?" he said. "Perhaps she J 
will not come before night, her feet arc so small." 

Ka-wate sat on the rock above and heard all he said. 
She watched him take a stick and look into the mound 
for the hares. He pulled out a small one which he , 
threw away. But the second was smaller than the first. ] 
Then a third and a fourth, -""h tiny, and all he threw ' 
away. " I do not care for the smaller ones," he said. 
" There are so many here, I will not eat the little 
ones." But he hunted and hunted in the mound of 
ashes for the hares. All were gone. 

He said, " That woman has robbed me." Then he 
picked up the four little ones and ate them. He looked 
about for Ka-wate but did not see her because he did 
not look up. Then as he was tired and lay down to 
rest, he looked up and saw her, with the cooked hares 
piled beside her. 

Coyote was hungry. He begged her to throw one 
down. She threw a very small one. Then Coyote be- 
came angry. And he was still more angry because he 
could not climb the rock. She had gone where he 
could not go. 





Pima (Arizona) 
FTER people and the animals were created, they 
all lived together. Rattlesnake was there, and 
was called Soft Child because he was so soft in 
his motions. The people liked to hear him rattle and 
little rest did he get because they continually poked 
and scratched him so that he would shake the rattles 
in his tail. At last Rattlesnake went to Elder Brother 
to ask help. Elder Brother pulled a hair from his own 
lip, cut it in short pieces, and made it into teeth for 
Soft Child. 
" If any one bothers you," he said, " bite him." 
That very evening Ta-api, Rabbit, came to Soft 
Child as he had done before and scratched him. Soft 
Child raised his head and bit Rabbit. Rabbit was an- 
gry and scratched again. Soft Child bit him again. 
Then Rabbit ran about saying that Soft Child was 
angry and had bitten him. Then he went to Rattlesnake 
again, and twice more he was bitten. 
The bites made Rabbit very sick. He asked for a 


bed of cool sea sand. Coyote was sent to the sea for i 
the cool, damp sand. Then Rabbit asked for the shade I 
of bushes that he might feel the cool breeze. But at J 
last Rabbit died. He was the first creature which had| 
died in this new world. 

Then the people were troubled because they did not I 
know what to do with the *— ^7 of Rabbit. One said,! 
" If we bury him, Coyote win surely dig him up." 

Another said, " If we hide him. Coyote will surely 
find him." 

And another said, " If we put him in a tree. Coyote 
will surely climb up." 

So they decided to burn the body of Rabbit, and yet 
there was no fire on earth. 

Blue Fly said, " Go to Sun and get some of the fire 
which he keeps in his house," So Coyote scampered 
away, but he was sure the people were trying to get 
rid of him so he kept looking back. 

Then Blue Fly made the first fire drill. Taking a 
stick like an arrow he twirled it in his hands, letting 
the lower end rest on a flat stick that lay on the ground. 
Soon smoke began to arise, and then fire came. The 
people gathered fuel and began their duty. 

But Coyote, looking back, saw fire ascending. He 
turned and ran back as fast as he could go. When the 
people saw him coming, they formed a ring, but he 


raced around the circle until he saw two short men 
standing together. He jumped over them, and seized 
the heart of Rabbit. But he burned his mouth doing 
it, and it is black to this day. 




Sia {New Mexico) 

COYOTE'S house was not far from Rattle- | 
snake's home. One morning when they were j 
out walking togethti, Coyote said to Rattle- 

" To-morrow come to my house." 

In the morning Rattlesnake went to Coyote's house. 
He moved slowly along the floor, shaking his rattle. 
Coyote sat at one side, very much frightened. The 
movements of the snake and the rattle frightened him. 
Coyote had a pot of rabbit meat on the fire,' which he 
placed in front of the snake, saying, 

" Companion, eat." 

" I will not eat your meat. I do not understand your 
food," said Rattlesnake. 

" What food do you eat? " 

" I eat the yellow flowers of the com." 

Coyote at once began to search for the yellow com 
flowers. When he found some, Rattlesnake said, 

" Put some on top of my head so that I may eat it." 

Coyote stood as far off as he could and placed the 
pollen on the snake's head. 


The snake said, " Come nearer and put enough on 
[ my head so that I may find it." 

Coyote was very much afraid, but after a while he 
[ came nearer and did as he was told. 

Then the snake went away, saying, 

" Companion, to-morrow you come to my house." 

" All right," said Coyote. " To-morrow I will 
[ come." 

Coyote sat down and thought about the morrow. He 
thought a good deal about what the snake might do. 
So he made a small rattle by placing tiny pebbles tn 
a gourd and fastened it to the end of his tail. He shook 
it a while and was much pleased with it. 

The next morning he started for the snake's house. 
He shook the rattle on the end of his tail and smiled, 
and said to himself, 

"This is good. When I go into Rattlesnake's house, 
he will be very much afraid of me." 

Coyote did not walk into Snake's house, but moved 
like a snake. But Coyote could not shake his rattle as 
the snake shook his. He had to hold it in his hand. 
But when he shook his rattle, the snake seemed much 
afraid, and said, 

" Companion, I am afraid of you." 

Now Rattlesnake had a stew of rats on the fire, and 
I he placed some before Coyote. But Coyote said, 


" I do not understand your food. 
because I do not understand it." 

Rattlesnake insisted upon his eating, but Coyote re- 
fused. He said, 

" If you put some of the flower of the corn on my 
head, I will eat. I understand that food." 

The snake took some cot-n ""lien, but he pretended ^ 
to be afraid of Coyote ana siuod off some distance. 
Coyote said, 

" Come nearer and place it on top my head.'* 

Snake replied, " I am afraid of you." 

Coyote said, " Come nearer. I am not bad." 

Then the snake came closer and put the pollen on 
top of Coyote's head. 

But Coyote did not have the long tongue of the snake 
and he could not get the pollen off the top of his head. 
He put out his tongue first on one side of his nose and 
then on the other, but he could only reach to the side 
of his nose. His efforts made the snake laugh, but the 
snake put his hand over his mouth so Coyote should 
not see him laugh. Really, the snake hid his head in 
his body. 

At last Coyote went home. As he left the snake's 
house, he held his tail in his hand and shook the rattle. 

Snake cried, "Oh, companion! I am so afraid of 
you! " but really the snake shook with laughter. 


When Coyote reached his home he said to himself, 
'^ I was such a fooL Rattlesnake had much food to 
eat and I would not take it. Now I am very hungry." 
Then he went out in search of food. 




Pima {Arizona) 

ONCE upon a time an oia Indian woman had two 
grandchildren. Every day she ground wheat 
and corn between the grinding stones to make 
porridge for them. One day as she put the water-olla 
on the fire outside the house to heat the water, she told 
the children not to quarrel because they might upset 
the olla. But the children began to quarrel. They up- 
set the olla and spilled the water and their grandmother 
spanked them. 

Then the children were angry and ran away. They 
ran far away over the mountains. The grandmother 
heard them whistling and she ran after them and fol- 
lowed them from place to place, but she could not 
catch up with them. 

At last the older boy said, " I will turn into a sa- 
guaro, so that I shall live forever and bear fruit every 

The younger said, '* Then I will turn into a palo 
verde and stand tfiere forever. These mountains are 


in all directions. The magic trail brightly lay before 
him. He threw black darkness around him and slowly 
reached the enemy, sitting down four times upon the 
trail. He found a bag of the enemy, with much prized 
possessions. It was tied one knot on top of another, but 
he bit them off. He took from it the blue necklaces, 
blue earrings, and the different belongings lying around 
gathered up with him. Then ne slowly took his way 
back on the magic trail, with magic fire everywhere. 
Hidden in his yellow darkness, he returned to me. He 
left the others at the council and in darkness took his 
homeward way, resting four times. He sat on his bed 
and felt all directions of the earth rustling in the dark- 
ness. Darkness lay all around. 

I called on Owl, the white blood-sucker. To him I 
sent my cry. He was friendly and came down to me 
with four thin flys (sailing) on the way. He looked 
in all directions. The magic trail brightly before him 
lay. He flew, with four thin fiys, toward the enemy. 
The mountain of their power which stood in the land 
he bit off short. The springs he bit off, and their very 
good dreams. The best bow strings and the straight- 
flying reeds he grasped and cut very short. He bit off 
their flesh and made holes in their bones. From the 
things gathered, he made a belt from a bowstring. 
Then he returned. He came through the whitish mist 


of dawn in four flights. The people held a council. 
Leaving them there, he after four thin flys reached his 
bed in the gray dawn mist Then in all directions he 
heard the darkness rattling, as he lay there. 




Pima (Arizona) 

A QUAIL once had more than twenty children, 
and with them sht idered over the whole 
country in search of water and could not find 
it. It was very hot and they were all crying, " Where 
can we get some water? Where can we get some wa- 
ter? " but for a long time they could find none. 

At last, way in the north, under a mesquite tree, the 
mother quail saw a pond of water, but it was very 
muddy and not fit to drink. But the little quails had 
been wandering so many days and were so tired they 
stopped under the shade of the mesquite tree, and by 
and by, one by one, they went down to the water and 
drank it. But the water was so bad they all died. 









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